文章摘要
苦草粉对草鱼幼鱼生长与生理生化性能的影响*
Effects of adding Vallisneria natans meal to diet on growth, physiological and biochemical properties of juvenile grass carps(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)*
投稿时间:2018-11-06  修订日期:2018-12-10
DOI:
中文关键词: 草鱼幼鱼  苦草  生长性能  肝胰脏指标  消化率  抗感染能力
英文关键词: Ctenopharyngodon idellus  Vallisneria natans  Growth  Hepatopancreas indices  Apparent digestibility  Ability of anti-infection
基金项目:水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项子课题(2014ZX07101-012-04)
作者单位E-mail
黄仲园 上海海洋大学 1099889240@qq.com 
华雪铭 上海海洋大学 xmhua@shou.edu.cn 
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中文摘要:
      摘要:本研究评价了苦草粉(Vallisneria natans)在草鱼饲料中的应用效果。以不含苦草粉的基础饲料(VN0组)为对照,分别用10%(VN1组)、20%(VN2组)、30%(VN3组)的苦草粉替代基础组饲料中的次粉和米糠,配制4种实验饲料,另设置一组只投喂新鲜苦草的青饲料组(VN组)。选用初始体重(18.85±0.20)g的草鱼幼鱼在室内水泥池网箱进行为期8周的养殖实验。结果表明,添加苦草粉影响草鱼的生长、肝胰脏和血清指标、肠道消化酶活力及饲料干物质表观消化率。随着苦草粉添加量的增加,草鱼的增重率、存活率、饲料系数等无显著性变化,内脏指数及肝胰脏指数显著降低;肝胰脏SOD活力显著提高,MDA含量先降后升,VN3组最高。血清总蛋白含量显著升高;血清白蛋白含量呈现先增后降的趋势,VN1组最大;血清ALT活力显著上升;与对照组相比血清AST活力显著降低,各苦草粉组之间没有显著性差异。随着苦草添加量的上升,前肠淀粉酶活力显著增强,中、后肠淀粉酶活力显著降低;对照组前、中、后肠蛋白酶活力依次增强,随着苦草添加量的增加,前、中肠蛋白酶活力均表现为先增后降再增的变化趋势,VN2组前、中肠蛋白酶活力显著低于其他各组,后肠蛋白酶活力呈现显著降低的趋势。添加苦草显著降低了饲料表观消化率,同时在一定程度上增强了草鱼对嗜水气单胞菌的抗感染能力。VN组出现负增长现象,内脏指数及肝胰脏指数、血清白蛋白、球蛋白及ALT都显著低于其他组;肠道各段淀粉酶活力显著高于各实用饲料组;。以上结果表明,饲料中添加10%~30%苦草粉对草鱼生长没有影响,同时增加了草鱼的可食用部分,也有利于鱼体健康;苦草粉的使用效果明显优于新鲜苦草。
英文摘要:
      Abstract: In this study, the effect of Vallisneria natans meal used as feed resource in the diet of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) on growth, physiological and biochemical properties was evaluated. Four isonitrogenous and isoenergic diets were formulated by replacing the secondary powder and rice bran with 0 (VN0, control), 10% (VN1), 20% (VN2) and 30% (VN3) V. natans meal. In addition, the group that fed fish only with fresh V. natans was designed. Juvenile grass carp of initial weight (18.85 ±0.20) g were selected to be cultured for 8 weeks in indoor cement tank cages. The results showed that the growth, biochemical indicators in serum and hepatopancreas, intestinal digestive enzyme activity and the apparent digestibility of the fish were affected by V. natans meal. With the increase of the amount of V. natans meal, there was no significant change in the weight gain rate, survival rate, feed coefficient, etc., and the visceral index and hepatopancreas index decreased significantly. The SOD activity of hepatopancreas was significantly increased, while MDA content decreased first and then increased, and group VN3 was the highest. The content of serum total protein increased significantly, the serum albumin content increased first and then decreased, and the highest value was found in group VN1.Serum ALT activity and serum AST activity significantly increased and decreased respectively in V. natans meal groups compared with the control group, and there was no significant difference among the V. natans meal groups. The amylase activity in the foregut increased significantly with the addition of V. natans meal, while that in the middle and posterior intestine decreased significantly. In the control group, the activity of protease from foregut to posterior intestine increased successively, and with the addition of bitter herbs, the activity of protease increased first, then decreased and increased successively in the former and middle intestine, the peak was observed in group VN2, while that of posterior intestine was significantly reduced. The addition of V.natans meal resulted in significantly reduced apparent digestibility of the diets and enhanced resistance ability of grass carp to Aeromonas hydrophila?to some extent. The group VN showed negative growth and depressed tvisceral index, hepatopancreas index, serum albumin, globulin and ALT. The activity of amylase in the intestinal segments was significantly higher than that in all practical formulated diets. The above results showed that the addition of 10% ~ 30% V.natans meal in the diet had no effect on the growth of grass carp, increased the edible part of grass carp and was beneficial to the health of the fish. It would be better when V. natans meal used as feed ingredient than fresh V. natans.
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