文章摘要
对虾工厂化养殖中浮游动物群落结构的变化规律*
Changes of zooplankton community structure in industrial shrimp farming ponds
投稿时间:2019-01-15  修订日期:2019-02-02
DOI:
中文关键词: 凡纳滨对虾  工厂化养殖  浮游动物  群落结构  环境因素
英文关键词: Litopenaeus vannamei  industrial aquaculture  Zooplankton  community structure  environmental factors
基金项目:
作者单位E-mail
罗强 水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心上海海洋大学 上海
青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 
luoqiang1220@163.com 
李健 中国水产科学院黄海水产研究所 lijian@ysfri.ac.cn 
常志强 中国水产科学院黄海水产研究所  
陈钊 中国水产科学院黄海水产研究所  
乔玲 中国水产科学院黄海水产研究所  
杨力敢 中国水产科学院黄海水产研究所  
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中文摘要:
      为了掌握对虾工厂化养殖过程中浮游动物的变动规律,有效管理水体环境质量,提高养殖效益,于2018年8月17日~11月3日,以凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)为试验对象,分析了对虾工厂化养殖水体中浮游动物群落结构特征、演替规律及其与养殖水体弧菌、浮游微藻和环境因素的关系。结果表明,从试验塘鉴定出浮游动物主要隶属于四大类,种类最多的为原生动物共13种,占总数的61.9%,其次为轮虫和桡足类皆为3种,占总数的14.3%,枝角类最少,占总数的0.05%。实验塘的优势种以原生动物、桡足类和桡足幼虫为主,实验塘中浮游动物整个养殖期的总密度约为6.41×103ind./L,平均密度约为0.71×103ind./L,浮游动物总生物量约为105.60mg/L,平均生物量约为11.72mg/L。实验塘浮游动物Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H′)在0.52~1.64之间波动。相关性分析显示浮游动物数量和浮游微藻数量显著负相关(P<0.05),与弧菌数量呈负相关但不显著(P>0.05),典范对应分析(canonical correspondence analysis, CCA)显示温度、pH、营养盐等是影响浮游动物优势种演替的重要因素。研究结果为深入认识凡纳滨对虾工厂化养殖中浮游动物的群落结构提供了基础数据。
英文摘要:
      Ecological characteristics of zooplankton were studied to master changes in the law of zooplankton in the industrial shrimp farming ponds, to effective manage environmental quality of cultured waters, and to rise cultured benefit. From August to November in 2018, by Litopenaeus vannarnei as experimental object was research in the industrial shrimp farming ponds. The structure characteristics and succession law of zooplankton community structure in shrimp industrial aquaculture waters and its relationship with vibrio, microalgae and environmental factors were analyzed. The experimental results showed that Four categories had 21 species in the industrial shrimp farming ponds. Species of protozoan, rotifer , cladocera and copepoda were accounted for 61.9%, 14.3%, 0.05% and 14.3% respectively in the total ratio. Dominant species of zooplankton mainly included protozoa and copepods and copepodid larvas in the industrial shrimp farming ponds. The total density of zooplankton in the experimental pond was about 6.41×103ind./L, and the average density was about 0.71×103ind./L. The total biomass of zooplankton was about 105.60mg/L, and the average biomass was about 11.72mg/L. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H") of the zooplankton fluctuated between 0.52 and 1.64. Correlation analysis showed that the number of zooplankton and the number of planktonic microalgae were significantly negatively correlated (P<0.05), and negatively correlated with the number of Vibrio (P>0.05). Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) shows that Temperature, pH, nutrient salts, etc. are important factors influencing the succession of dominant species of zooplankton.
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