文章摘要
薛家岛海水网箱养殖海域贝藻综合养殖效果及其影响因素分析
Analysis on the Effectiveness of Polyculture of Shellfish and Algae and its Influencing Factors in Xuejiadao Sea Cage Aquaculture Area
投稿时间:2021-02-01  修订日期:2021-03-16
DOI:
中文关键词: 马氏珠母贝  异枝麒麟菜  综合养殖;养殖效果;海水网箱养殖
英文关键词: Pinctada martensi  Eucheuma striatum  Integrated culture  Culture efficiency  Sea cage mariculture
基金项目:农业农村部农业国际合作交流项目(一带一路”热带国家水产养殖科技创新合作) (20180101)、山东省重大科技创新工程专项-“健康海洋”技术创新工程(2018SDKJ0501-3)和中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)“美丽中国生态文明建设科技工程”( XDA23050402)共同资助
作者单位邮编
吴文广 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所、上海海洋大学 266071
张继红 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所、青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 266071
刘毅 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
赵云霞 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
张坤阳 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
王亮亮 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
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中文摘要:
      网箱养殖对水环境的污染是海水养殖产业面临的主要问题,构建多营养层次综合养殖(IMTA)模式是解决问题的一种有效主要手段。本研究于2018年9-11月在青岛薛家岛海域构建了包含鱼类网箱、马氏珠母贝(Pinctada martensi)和异枝麒麟菜(Eucheuma striatum)的多营养层次综合养殖模式,开展现场实验的同时在室内测定了马氏珠母贝的摄食生理指标和异枝麒麟菜的营养盐吸收速率,对比分析了贝藻综合养殖对网箱养殖区的水质改善效果。结果表明,(1)实验点马氏珠母贝壳高及特定生长率均显著高于对照点,0.50~0.62 m水层的平均壳高显著高于其他水层;(2)实验点异枝麒麟菜的净增重显著高于对照点,水深0.60~0.90 m处生长速率最高;(3)在24.45℃条件下,马氏珠母贝对颗粒有机物质的摄食率、吸收率和吸收效率均值分别为(4.13±0.77) mg/(h?ind)、(1.04±0.24) mg/(h?ind)和(25.00±2.51) %,均显著高于20.74℃;在实验温度范围内,异枝麒麟菜对氮、磷、硅营养盐吸收速率均随着温度升高而先升高再降低,最高值出现在30℃;(4)实验期间实验点马氏珠母贝摄食和吸收的颗粒有机物分别为778.08g和144.47g,异枝麒麟菜吸收的氮、磷、硅总量分别为8.55g、1.11g和9.18g,均高于对照点。温度、养殖深度、颗粒有机物及营养盐浓度是影响马氏珠母贝和异枝麒麟菜生长及生理代谢的主要因素。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, the environmental pollution and ecological problems caused by cage aquaculture have become increasingly prominent in shallow sea, and the cultivation technique of Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture (IMTA) can be applied to minimized the impact of enrichment of organic fisheries. The Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture mode was implemented in September to November 2018 in this study, which includes fish cage aquaculture, Pinctada martensi and Eucheuma striatum. The feeding physiology indicators of P. martensi and the nutrient uptake rate of E. striatum were measured in different temperature in the laboratory at the same time as conducting field experiments, and the improvement effect of water quality in cage aquaculture area by IMTA of shellfish and algae on was compared and analyzed. The results showed that: (1) The specific growth rate (SGR) of P. martensi in marine fish cage area was significantly higher than that in control area, and the average shell height of the 0.5-0.62 m water layer of P. martensi in the cage area was significantly higher than other water layers. (2) E. striatum has the fastest SGR in the a 0.60-0.90 m water layer, and the net wet weight gain of E. striatum was significantly higher than that in control area. (3) At 24.45℃, the average feeding rate, absorption rate and absorption efficiency of P. martensi on particulate organic matter were respectively (4.13±0.77) mg/(h?ind), (1.04±0.24) mg/(h?ind) and (25.00±2.51) %, which were significantly higher than those at 20.74℃; Within the experimental temperature range, the absorption rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon first increased, then decreased with increasing temperature, and the maximum value appeared at 30℃. (4) It is estimated that the filtered total amount of particulate organic matter and the absorbed total amount of particulate organic matter of P. martensi in marine fish cage area during the culture experiment was 778.08g and 144.47g, respectively, and the removed total amount of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon of E. striatum in marine fish cage area during the culture experiment was 8.55g, 1.11g and 9.18g, respectively, all the above indicators were higher than that in control area. Temperature, depth of cultivation, particulate organic matter and nutrient concentration were the main factors affecting the growth and physiological metabolism of P. martensi and E. striatum. It will provide data and theoretical support for the establishment of integrated multi-trophic aquaculture technology.
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