文章摘要
潜浮式船型桁架结构深海养殖网箱避浪性能研究
Study on wave resistance performance of a submersible deep-sea aquaculture cage with vessel-shaped truss structure
投稿时间:2021-08-17  修订日期:2021-09-27
DOI:
中文关键词: 潜浮式网箱  单点系泊  波浪  海流  模型试验
英文关键词: Submersible cage  Single-point mooring  Wave  Current  Model test
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2019YFD0900903), 国家自然科学基金(31772897), 广东省现代农业产业技术体系海水鱼产业创新项目(2019KJ143), 中国水产科学研究院中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金资助(2020TD77), 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所中央级公益性科研院所基本科研业务费专项资金资(2021SD10)资助.
作者单位邮编
吴元紧 大连海洋大学海洋与土木工程学院/中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 510300
黄小华 中国水产科学研究院南海水产研究所 510300
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中文摘要:
      深海网箱作为现代海洋渔业拓展外海养殖空间的重要养殖装备,其布设环境一般较近海更为复杂恶劣,对于保障其安全性和稳定性提出了更高的要求。本研究针对一种单点系泊潜浮式船型桁架网箱开展了模型比尺为1:40的波浪流水池试验,重点围绕该网箱在不同吃水深度受波浪作用的系泊受力、升沉、纵摇和横摇等水动力学特性进行了比较分析。试验结果表明,波高7.5~12.5cm时(原型3~5m),网箱漂浮状态即可以满足养殖需求,其系泊力及运动响应均较小,具备较高的安全性和稳定性;恶劣海况时即本试验中波高15cm和17.5cm(原型6m和7m),通过整体下潜的方式网箱具有良好的避浪性能,其中系泊力减幅达70%以上,升沉、纵摇和横摇等运动分量减幅也达20%~60%;波流试验中,海流对网箱避浪性能存在一定的影响,但总体上仍然具有较好的避浪效果。研究结果可为单点系泊潜浮式深海网箱的安全运行与日常管理提供理论依据和数据参考。
英文摘要:
      At present, the main offshore aquaculture cages in China are large high density polyethylene gravity deep water cages, which are generally composed of floating frame system, netting system, counterweight system and mooring system.The cage culture space is formed by the counterweight system and the netting system,so it will be greatly reduced when the environmental load is large, and which will affect the normal growth of the fish, even cause extrusion and other problems.This makes the fish cage layout generally choose coastal areas with small wind and wave environmental loads such as ports and coasts, and adopt the intensive development model.In the past 20 years, this industry has provided a large number of high-quality animal proteins to the Chinese people, alleviated the pressure of food supply to some extent, and has an indispensable importance for China 's marine fisheries and economic development.However, with the rapid development of science and technology and economy in China in recent years, the cage industry has gradually improved, the cost of cage manufacturing has decreased year by year, and more and more fishermen have joined.Due to the lack of space and unreasonable layout of offshore aquaculture, the problems including environmental deterioration, frequent diseases are becoming more and more serious, which greatly influence the quality and safety of aquatic products. In order to get the vast water space and high-quality environmental condition, it's important developing direction to vigorously explore deep-sea aquaculture. The traditional gravity cage is difficult to adapt to the harsh environment of the deep sea and cannot be placed in the offshore for aquaculture work.As one of the important aquaculture equipment for the development of deep-sea fishery, the deep-sea cage has the integrated management of aquaculture with a larger main structure. Its large-scale and intelligent characteristics can greatly reduce the cost of aquaculture and improve the interests of fishermen in aquaculture.However, it should be noted that the environment faced by the cages operating in the deep sea is more complex and harsh than that in the offshore. In particular, the East China Sea and the South China Sea are in typhoon-prone areas, and often encounter strong wind jets, causing irreversible damage to the cages.Therefore, for this new type of large-scale intelligent aquaculture equipment, we need to understand its hydrodynamic parameters in the marine environment, so as to provide basic theoretical guidance data for the construction, site selection and operation of the cage, and ensure the safe operation and stable output of the cage. The research object of this study is a new type of anti-wind wave cage with single point mooring system.The main body of the cage is a hybrid structure of ship truss and floating body. The overall floating and diving of the main frame of the cage are realized through the front and rear floating ballast water,so as to meet the operational requirements of the aquaculture process.The single point mooring system can make the cage adapt to adjust its position when typhoon and big waves come, and greatly reduce the impact of wind and waves on the cage. It has the characteristics of high safety and strong structural stability.The research content is mainly through physical model test with model scale of 1:40,The hydrodynamic characteristics (including mooring force, heave, pitch and roll) of the cage under the wave and current have been analyzed and compared.The purpose is to know the dynamic response characteristics of the cage under the action of wave and current and the wave resistance after diving. Due to the normal operation of the cage in the state of floating, and only in the encounter with strong waves and currents to choose the whole cage diving way to avoid.Therefore, three groups of tests were set, 1. Dynamic response characteristics of cages in floating state (7.5~12.5 cm ) under general wave conditions.2. The performance of the cage in high wave (15 cm and 17.5 cm) after diving;3. The effect of current on the wave resistance performance of the cage under the combined action of wave and current.The results show that under the condition of 7.5~12.5cm wave height, the mooring force and motion response of the floating cage are small, which can prove it has good safety and stability and can meet the requirements of aquaculture under this condition. Under severe condition, i.e., the condition under wave height 15 cm and 17.5 cm in this experiment, the cage has good wave resistance by increasing draught, in which the mooring force was reduced more than 70% and the motion components such as heave, pitch and roll was also reduced 20%~60%. In the wave combined with current test, the current has a certain influence on the wave resistance of the cage, but generally it still has good wave resistance.Through this study, the dynamic response characteristics of cages under wave currents are understood. The research results can provide theoretical basis and data reference for the safe operation and daily management of single-point mooring diving cages, and help the innovation of deep-sea aquaculture equipment in China to promote the development of marine fishery.
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