文章摘要
养殖和野生亚东鲑机体成分比较分析
Comparative composition analysis of farmed and wild Yadong trout (Salmo trutta fario)
投稿时间:2021-09-08  修订日期:2021-10-09
DOI:
中文关键词: 亚东鲑  野生  养殖  营养成分  氨基酸  脂肪酸
英文关键词: Salmo trutta fario  Wild  Farmed  Nutrient composition  Amino acid  Fatty acid
基金项目:
作者单位邮编
李琳 上海海洋大学 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 266071
张斐然 上海海洋大学 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
刘长琳 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
刘宝良 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
李杰 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
多吉欧珠 西藏自治区日喀则市亚东县农牧综合服务中心 
热旦 西藏自治区日喀则市亚东县农牧综合服务中心 
德吉措姆 西藏自治区日喀则市亚东县农牧综合服务中心 
措姆 西藏自治区日喀则市亚东县农牧综合服务中心 
毕清竹 上海海洋大学 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
卫育良 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
段美 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
梁萌青 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
徐后国① 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 266071
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中文摘要:
      亚东鲑(Salmo trutta fario)是鲑属鱼类在青藏高原仅有的鱼类种群,是亚东地区全国农产品地理标志产品。本试验对西藏亚东地区野生和养殖亚东鲑的常规营养成分及各组织氨基酸和脂肪酸组成进行分析,旨在比较野生和养殖亚东鲑营养成分的异同,为养殖亚东鲑的品质评价和饲料配方的完善提供参考信息。试验采集亚东河中野生亚东鲑和亚东渔业产业园中使用配合饲料养殖的亚东鲑各10尾用于相关成分分析,每尾作为一个独立样本。结果表明,野生组肥满度显著低于养殖组,而全鱼水分和灰分显著高于养殖组。全鱼粗蛋白和粗脂肪以及肝脏常规成分在野生和养殖组间无显著差异。野生组肌肉粗脂肪显著低于养殖组,而水分含量显著高于养殖组。野生组全鱼必需氨基酸总量显著高于养殖组,且野生组肌肉中苏氨酸、缬氨酸、苯丙氨酸、赖氨酸、甘氨酸含量显著高于养殖组。野生组全鱼、肌肉和肝脏中饱和脂肪酸、n-3多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3PUFA)总量、EPA和C20:4n-6 以及肌肉中DHA含量高于养殖组,而全鱼和组织中单不饱和脂肪酸和n-6PUFA总量低于养殖组。综上,目前养殖亚东鲑和野生亚东鲑在机体成分上存在较大差异。由于养殖鱼类体成分很大程度上反应了饲料组成,因此本实验结果表明,目前亚东鲑养殖中饲料营养组成可能有待进一步优化。
英文摘要:
      Yadong trout (Salmo trutta fario), which is the only Salmonid fish in Tibet Plateau, is a National Agricultural Product with Geographical Indications in Yadong. Development of the aquaculture of Yadong trout has significant meaning for the local farmers. However, no special study has investigated the nutrient requirements in this fish. This study was aimed at analyzing the proximate composition and the composition of amino acids and fatty acids in various tissues of wild and farmed Yadong trout, in order to provide a reference for fish fillet evaluation and feed formulation optimization. Ten wild fish captured in Yadong River, and 10 fish cultured with formulated feed in Yadong Industry Park were used in this study, with each fish as a replicate. The cultured fish were F1 generation of wild broodstocks captured in Yadong River, and fed formulated feeds in the whole life time. The body length of wild Yadong trout was in the range of 13.4 ~ 28.7 cm, and the body weight was in the range of 38.48 ~ 346.85 g. The body length and body weight of farmed Yadong trout was in the range of 16.4 ~ 24.5 cm and 78.39 ~ 275.29 g, respectively. Frozen samples were transported to the lab via airplane. Proximate composition of whole fish, muscle and liver, fatty acid composition of whole fish and various tissues including muscle, liver, intestine, brain, and eye, as well as amino acid composition of whole-fish, muscle, and liver were analyzed. The fatty acid composition (expressed as % total fatty acids) and amino acid composition (expressed as % dry matter basis) was assayed with gas chromatography and automatic amino acid analyzer, respectively. T Test for Independent-Samples was used in the data statistics. The results were expressed as means ± standard error. The results showed that wild fish had lower condition factor but higher moisture and ash contents than farmed fish. Muscle of wild fish had lower crude lipid content but higher moisture content than farmed fish. The whole-body protein and lipid contents, as well as the proximate composition of liver were not significantly (P > 0.05) different between wild and farmed fish. Contents of saturated fatty acids (mainly C16:0 and C18:0) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in whole fish, muscle and liver were significantly (P < 0.05) higher, while contents of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) (mainly C16:1n-7 and C18:1n-9) and n-6 PUFA (mainly C18:2n-6) were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in wild Yadong trout compared to farmed Yadong trout. EPA and C20:4n-6 in whole fish, muscle and liver, as well as DHA in the muscle of wild Yadong trout were significantly (P < 0.05) higher compared to farmed Yadong trout. In the intestine of wild Yadong trout, the contents of C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C16:1n-7, C20:5n-3, and C22:5n-3 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher while the contents of C18:1n-9 and C18:2n-6 were significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared to farmed Yadong trout. In the brain of wild Yadong trout, the contents of C16:1n-7, C20:5n-3, and C22:5n-3 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher, while the contents of C18:1n-9 and C20:2n-6 were significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared to farmed Yadong trout. In the eye of wild Yadong trout, the contents of C14:0, C16:0, and C18:0, C16:1n-7, C20:1n-9, C20:2n-6, C20:4n-6, C20:5n-3, and C22:5n-3 were significantly (P < 0.05) higher, while the contents of C18:1n-9, C22:1n-9, C24:1n-9, C18:2n-6 and C18:3n-3 were significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared to farmed Yadong trout. The total essential amino acid contents in wild fish were significantly higher compared to farmed fish. Contents of threonine, valine, phenylalanine, lysine and glycine in the muscle of wild fish were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in farmed fish, while no significant (P > 0.05) difference was observed in other amino acids. These results indicate that wild Yadong trout were leaner than farmed ones in terms of muscle lipid content. For trout, which were mainly consumed freshly, this trait may make farmed Yadong trout more acceptable compared wild ones. However, in terms of fatty acid compositions and amino acids, the wild Yadong trout seemed still more acceptable than farmed ones. In particular, the n-3 PUFA contents were important nutritional trait of fish fillet. The wild Yadong trout had obviously higher n-3 PUFA contents than farmed ones. This reminds us that the fish oil in the feeds of Yadong trout should not be omitted, considering that fish chemical composition generally reflects that of the diets. Also, nowadays, the price of alternative oils such as soybean oil is no longer cheap. Therefore, the use of lipid sources in the diets of Yadong trout should be re-considered. Similarly, the essential amino acid contents in wild Yadong trout were also higher compared to the farmed ones. This reminds us that the proteins sources should be re-considered and a certain level of fish meal should be gr guaranteed. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that the formulated feeds of Yadong trout need to be further optimized.
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