文章摘要
渤海小竹山岛海洋牧场区营养盐分布特征及增养殖适宜性探究
Study on the distribution characteristics of nutrients and suitability for aquaculture in Marine ranching of Xiaozhushan Island, Bohai Sea
投稿时间:2021-09-13  修订日期:2021-10-11
DOI:
中文关键词: 海洋牧场  营养盐  增养殖适宜性  分布特征
英文关键词: Marine ranching  Nutrients  Aquaculture suitability  Distribution characteristics
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2019YFD0901302)the National Key R&D Program of China (No. 2019YFD0901302)
作者单位邮编
薛宇 中国海洋大学 266000
于浩林 中国海洋大学 
周广军 山东省烟台市海洋经济研究院 
赵伟 中国海洋大学 
唐衍力 中国海洋大学 266000
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中文摘要:
      营养盐作为海水生物的基本生源要素,其含量与分布显著影响渔业资源分布与渔业活动。为了探究海洋牧场生态环境分布状况,并为海洋牧场的开发管理提供科学指导。本文根据2017年12月至2018年9月对小竹山岛海洋牧场区进行四个航次的季度调查,分析并讨论了该海区营养盐分布特征及增养殖活动适宜性。结果显示,无机磷(DIP)浓度季节变化为冬季>夏季>秋季>春季,浓度值分别为0.032mg/L、0.021mg/L、0.017mg/L和0.015mg/L。无机氮(DIN)浓度季节变化为秋季>冬季>夏季>春季,浓度值分别为0.26mg/L、0.21mg/L、0.20mg/L和0.18mg/L。无机磷(DIP)和无机氮(DIN)浓度在四个季节间分布有显著差异,但季节内分布均匀,而受到地形坡度和人工鱼礁投放的影响,在人工鱼礁投放区域中下层水体有较高的营养盐浓度。针对虾夷扇贝(Patinopecten yessoensis)和深水网箱增养殖活动,采用适宜性评价方法,选取海水营养水平指数、叶绿素a浓度、温度、盐度、水深和底质类型等指标进行增养殖适宜性探究。结果表明,虾夷扇贝增养殖适宜性指数在冬季和夏季较高,适宜在海洋牧场西部区域进行养殖活动;深水网箱增养殖适宜性指数在夏季和秋季较高,也适宜在西北区域进行养殖活动。由于人工鱼礁投放后改善了生态环境,除西北海域外,在人工鱼礁投放区域附近会出现较高的增养殖适宜性指数。海水营养盐分布与增养殖活动适宜性评价可为海洋牧场增殖效率的提高、促进可持续发展及开发提供科学依据与参考。
英文摘要:
      In recent years, marine ranching has become an important measure to restore the marine ecological environment and promote the development of fisheries. The ecological effects of artificial reefs are various and complex; in addition to providing shelters from predators and living space, artificial reef module can also affect nutrient transport for vertical water column by altering current flow and entraining nutrients, and thereby influencing surrounding biological production available to organisms and proliferate local fishery resources. During the constructing process of marine ranching, nutrient is the basic biogenic element for marine organisms, and its concentration and distribution significantly affect the distribution of fishery resources and anthropogenic activities. Understanding the spatial distribution characteristics of nutrients can provide a reference for adjusting the construction and layout of different functional areas in marine ranching. At present, Marine ranching in China mainly focus on fishery multiplication and leisure industrialization, the comprehensive utilization efficiency of Marine ranching is not high. Therefore, it is easy to cause extensive development of Marine ranching. However, as an important part of Marine pasture construction, the aquaculture activities are often lack of scientific planning, and exploring the scientific and reasonable layout of aquaculture activities is still in the preliminary stage. This is reflected in the lack of scientific investigation and demonstration before the aquaculture activities. At the same time, the aquaculture varieties are relatively single, and it will lead to the poor effect of the aquaculture activities. In order to explore the distribution of nutrient and put up with a scientific guidance for the development and management of marine ranching, four quarterly surveys were conducted from December 2017 to September 2018 in the marine ranching adjacent to Xiaozhushan Island. Distribution maps of different water layers and profiles of nutrients were generated, and the distribution characteristics were analyzed and discussed. Then, the suitability evaluating method was adopted to explore the suitability of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) culturing and deep-sea cages, which were two main aquaculture activities in marine ranching. Nutrient level index, Chl a concentration, temperature, salinity, water depth and sediment type were selected as evaluating indexes. Results showed that the seasonal variation of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) concentration from high to low was followed by winter, summer, autumn and spring (0.032 mg/L, 0.021mg/L, 0.017mg/L and 0.015mg/L, respectively). The seasonal variation of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentration from high to low was followed by autumn, winter, summer and spring (0.26mg/L, 0.21mg/L, 0.20mg/L and 0.18mg/L, respectively). The concentration of DIP and DIN were both significantly different from the four seasons, but the distribution was uniform in different seasons. Due to the influence of terrain slope and placement of artificial reefs, the nutrient concentration was higher in the middle and deeper depth close to the area of artificial reef placement. For different seasons, the suitability evaluating results indicated a spatial-temporal instruction that the suitability index of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) culturing was higher in winter and summer, and it was prone to be conducted in the west of certain sea area. However, the suitability index is low in autumn. Throughout the year, the suitability index of scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) was higher in the northwest of Marine ranching.The suitability index of deep-sea cage was higher in summer and autumn, and it was also suitable for the northwestern region. And the suitability index is low in winter. Throughout the year, the suitability index of deep-sea-water was higher in the northwest of Marine ranching. One possible reason is the mainly silt sediment in the northwest area with deep water. Meanwhile, a higher suitability index for aquaculture appeared near the area of artificial reef placement for different seasons. Artificial Reefs is an important part of the ecosystem in the Marine ranching area of Xiaozhushan Island and its adjacent areas. However, the area of the placement of artificial reef was small and the influence of artificial Reefs was not included in the suitability evaluation. As a result, the suitability index of the artificial reef is not high in the whole year, which can be further discussed in the future. Exploring distribution pattern of water nutrients and suitability evaluation of aquaculture activities is able to provide scientific evidence and reference for improvement of enhancement, sustainable development and exploitation of marine ranching. It can also provide a basis for exploring the distribution of Marine ranching ecological environment and utilization management.
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