文章摘要
中国明对虾放流对鱼类生态位的影响
Effects of Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) stock enhancement on the fish niche in mesocosm
投稿时间:2022-06-14  修订日期:2022-07-08
DOI:
中文关键词: 中国明对虾  放流  鱼类  生态位特征  围隔
英文关键词: Fenneropenaeus chinensis  stock enhancement  fish  niche characteristics  mesocosm
基金项目:(CF-MEEC/TR/2018-06)共同资助 [This work is supported by National Key R D Program of China (2019YFD0901202), Youth Talent Support Program of the Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao) (LMEES-YTSP-2018-04-03), and CNOOC Marine Environment and Ecological Protection Public Welfare Foundation (CF-MEEC/TR/2018-06)].左涛,副研究员,从事渔业生态学研究. E-mail: zuotao@ysfri.ac.cn,电话:13964843220收稿日期:2022-6-15;修订日期: - -
作者单位邮编
左涛 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 山东 青岛
青岛市海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 
266071
黄经献 中国水产科学研究院下营增殖实验站 
张传涛 中国水产科学研究院下营增殖实验站 
王 俊 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 山东 青岛
青岛市海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室 
孙坚强 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 山东 青岛 
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中文摘要:
      为探究中国明对虾增殖放流对水域内鱼类的影响及其表现形式,采用原位实验生态学方法,在对虾放流河道构建围隔,设置三种虾苗放流量(模拟莱州湾近岸放流5亿尾、7.5亿尾和10亿尾)和无放流处理,经过一个对虾生长季后,比较不同处理围隔中鱼类组成和生态位特征差异。结果表明:四种处理围隔中,回捕对虾数量随放流量增加而增加,但其生物量、平均个体大小和回捕率未随放流量增加而增加;回捕率在放流围隔间差异显著,以5亿尾模拟围隔的值最高;鱼的种类组成相似,可归于杂食性、浮游动物食性和鱼/虾食性。总鱼类和鱼/虾食性的鱼类产出量在围隔间差异不显著,杂食性鱼的产出量以放流围隔较高,浮游动物食性鱼的产出量随对虾放流量增加而减少。鱼种间高生态位重叠(>0.75)配对数随对虾生物量增多而减少。相似性分析显示,放流最多的和无放流围隔的鱼类生态位相异程度最高。综上认为,在实验水体中,放流对虾并不降低鱼类总量产出,但可能会影响不同食性鱼类的相对组成和生态位重叠度,且影响效应随放流量增加更为明显。
英文摘要:
      Marine stock enhancement is not only commonly reported to amplify the target species production but also induce some potential threats or effects at multiple ecological levels in the receiving ecosystem. Studies on the interaction between released activities and biological organisms are necessary to avoid or minimize the adverse impact of invasive species from stock enhancement in the receiving system. Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis, as one of important stock enhancement species, had an annual released number of 10 billion in recent years in the coastal waters of China. Due to the fishing pressure and ecological complexity in the open sea, the interaction between the releasing shrimp and native species may be weak and undetectable. Studies about the impacts of such intensive releasing activities have been relatively rare ecologically. In this paper, an in-situ mesocosm experiment carried out was to determine if the released shrimp alter the relative composition and niche characteristics of fish, which could be a reference to the local risk management of the species stock enhancement. The mesocosm were located in the shrimp-releasing channel of Weihe, Laizhou Bay from April to September 2019. A cross design of 4 treatments×3 replicates was conducted in the mesocosm. Mixing substrate and filtering seawater with a sieve of 0.28cm were applied to homogenize habitats across the replicates. The number of the shrimp larvae released in four treatments were: A) 2400, B) 1800, C) 1200, and O) 0 individuals in net enclosures. The treatments designed above corresponded to releasing 1 billion, 750 million, and 500 million shrimp larvae and none-releasing in the coastal waters of Laizhou Bay. Released shrimp larvae had an average body length of 1.63±0.18cm and a body width of 0.38±0.12 cm. At the end of the experimental period of September, shrimp and fishes were recaptured and had their Levin’s niche breadth and overlap indices examined in each enclosure. Results indicated that within the enclosures of four treatments, the recapture rates of shrimp ranged from 8.16% to 12.69% and had an average value of 9.87%. The recaptured shrimp number increased with releasing and had the highest value in enclosure A. But the total biomass, average individual mass, and recapture rate of shrimp did not show a similar pattern among enclosures. The recapture rate of shrimp was significantly different among the treatments and had the highest value in enclosure C. The fish species composition was similar in enclosures of four treatments, including six species of three feeding habits, omnivore (Konosirus punctatus and Liza haematocheila), zooplanktivore (Thrissa mystax and Sardinella zunasi), and fish/shrimp predator (carnivore) (Acanthogobius sp. and Sparus microcephalus czerskii). Of the fish species, Acanthogobius sp. dominated in all enclosures, while S. czerskii occurred few. The number and biomass of total fishes and carnivorous fishes did not present a significant difference among enclosures. Omnivorous fishes produced more in the released-enclosure A-C, while the zooplanktivorous fishes decreased with the shrimp releasing and had the highest number and biomass in the non-released enclosure O. Moreover, fishes with different feeding habits had their niche breadth varying among the enclosures of four treatments. Most fish species had wider niche breadth in released enclosures than in enclosure O. Both the fish’s niche overlap indices and the species pairs with high niche overlap (> 0.75) decreased in proper order, non-released enclosure O, released-enclosures B, C, and A. The carnivorous fish Acanthogobius sp. had more pairs with niche overlap indices (>0.75) in non-released enclosure O than in the other three treatments. Similarity analysis and multidimensional plot indicated enclosure A and O could be differentiated by the relative long similarity distance and little overlap area. Overall, facts in the experiment suggested that the shrimp recapture efficiency didn’t increase with releasing. In the current waters, released shrimp could be positive for the total output of both shrimp and fish organisms, especially for the omnivorous and carnivorous fishes, as the shrimp could share predation pressure and provide food for them. In addition, the shrimp release may affect the relative composition and niche characteristics of fish by increasing their niche breadth and reducing the overlaps between fishes with different feeding habits, and the impacts may be more detectable with the shrimp number increasing.
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