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唐山附近海域春季表层沉积物重金属含量年际变化及污染评价
胡 琴,郭 静,尹晓娜,曲 亮,曹 静
作者单位
胡 琴 中海油研究总院 北京 100028 
郭 静 中海油研究总院 北京 100028 
尹晓娜 中海油研究总院 北京 100028 
曲 亮 国家海洋局北海环境监测中心 青岛 266033 
曹 静 中海油研究总院 北京 100028 
摘要:
根据2006–2015年4个航次对唐山附近海域共70个采样站位的表层沉积物调查资料,分析了沉积物中Hg、Cu、Pb、Cd、Cr、Zn和As 7种重金属的含量和年际变化特征,并利用超标率统计法、地累积指数法和潜在生态风险指数法对其污染状况进行了评价。结果显示,调查海域表层沉积物中重金属含量总体水平较低,除个别站位的Cu和As超过第Ⅰ类标准值外,其他调查站位的重金属含量均符合第Ⅰ类标准。2006–2015年调查海域表层沉积物中7种重金属含量的年际变化略有不同,其中,Cu、Pb、Cd和Zn 4种重金属含量相对比较稳定,Hg和Cr的含量表现为先升高后降低的趋势,而As的变化趋势不明显。地累积指数法评价结果显示,7种重金属的地累积指数(Igeo)多年平均值为Hg>Cd>Pb>Cu>As>Cr>Zn;而潜在生态风险评价结果显示,7种重金属的潜在生态风险系数(Eir)多年平均值为Hg>Cd>As>Pb>Cu>Cr>Zn;两种污染评价结果一致,均显示Hg是唐山附近海域表层沉积物的主要污染因子,潜在生态风险最大。综合潜在风险指数(RI)年际变化范围为44.26–153.18,平均值为89.92,属于低生态风险水平;RI年际变化基本表现为先升高后降低的趋势,表明近年来调查海域表层沉积物重金属的污染状况有所改善。
关键词:  唐山  表层沉积物  重金属  年际变化  污染评价
DOI:10.11758/yykxjz.20160322001
分类号:
基金项目:中海石油(中国)有限公司科技项目(YXKY-2016-ZY-07)资助
Inter-Annual Concentration Variations and Pollution Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Surface Sediments in the Adjacent Sea Water of Tangshan in Spring
HU Qin,GUO Jing,YIN Xiaona,QU Liang,CAO Jing
Abstract:
Current study surveyed 70 sampling stations through four cruises in the adjacent seawater near Tangshan between 2006 and 2015. The contents and inter-annual variation characteristics of seven heavy metals: Hg, Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn and As in the surface sediment were analyzed. The single-factor exceeding rate, geo-accumulation index () and the comprehensive potential ecological risk index (RI) were used to evaluate the pollution degree. The results showed that the overall levels of the heavy metal contents in the surface sediment were low in the survey areas. Specifically, Cu and As contents in several stations exceeded the first class standard value, whereas the contents of other heavy metals accorded with the first class standard. The inter-annual content variations of the surveyed heavy metal were fluctuant slightly between 2006 and 2015. The contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, and Zn were relatively stable throughout the years, but the inter-annual variation of Hg and Cr increased initially followed by decrease. There was no significant change in As contents between the years. The evaluation results showed that the multi-year average of for the seven heavy metals was Hg>Cd>Pb>Cu>As>Cr>Zn, while the potential ecological risk assessment results showed that the multi-year average of the potential ecological risk factor for the seven heavy metals was Hg>Cd>As>Pb>Cu>Cr>Zn. Hg was the main pollution factor in surface sediments in the adjacent sea water of Tangshan based on the consistent results from two pollution evaluation methods, indicating that it has the highest ecological risk level. The inter-annual variations of RI ranged from 44.26 to 153.18 and the inter-annual average value was 89.92, belonging to the low ecological risk level. The trend of the inter-annual variations of RI was increasing and then decreasing, suggesting that the heavy metal pollution in surface sediments has been reduced in recent years.
Key words:  Tangshan  Surface sediments  Heavy metals  Inter-annual variations  Pollution assessment