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饲料中不同水解蛋白对鲈鱼(Lateolabrax japonicus)幼鱼鱼体及组织脂肪含量的影响
曹 林,张婷婷,徐后国,郑珂珂,梁萌青
作者单位
曹 林 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071上海海洋大学水产生命学院 上海 201306 
张婷婷 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071大连海洋大学水产生命学院 大连 116023 
徐后国 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071 
郑珂珂 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071 
梁萌青 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
摘要:
本研究通过8周的摄食生长实验来探讨高植物蛋白饲料中添加不同类型的水解蛋白对鲈鱼(Lateolabrax japonicus)幼鱼(初始平均体重为31.99 g)鱼体及组织脂肪含量的影响。实验设4个等氮等能的饲料处理组,对照组含有30%的鱼粉,通过在对照组饲料基础上分别添加水解猪血蛋白、水解豆粕蛋白和水解酵母蛋白替代10%的鱼粉来获得不同类型的实验组饲料,即水解猪血蛋白组、水解豆粕蛋白组和水解酵母蛋白组。养殖实验在近海浮式网箱中进行,每组饲料投喂3个重复的养殖网箱,每个网箱 30尾鱼。实验结果显示,高植物蛋白饲料中水解猪血蛋白、水解豆粕蛋白及水解酵母蛋白并没有对鲈鱼幼鱼的鱼体、肝脏、肌肉和内脏的脂肪含量产生显著影响。但与对照组相比,添加水解酵母蛋白的处理组显著降低了鲈鱼幼鱼的血清甘油三酯、总胆固醇及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量(P<0.05)。水解酵母蛋白替代鱼粉显著提高了鲈鱼幼鱼肌肉中C20∶1n-9的含量,而水解豆粕蛋白和水解酵母蛋白显著降低了肌肉中C22∶5n-3的含量(P<0.05)。与对照组相比,水解酵母蛋白显著降低了血清中C20∶5n-3的含量(P<0.05)。在腹部脂肪组织中,与对照组相比,猪血、豆粕及酵母蛋白水解物替代鱼粉极显著提高了饱和脂肪酸、十八碳及十六碳单不饱和脂肪酸、亚油酸及亚麻酸的含量,而极显著降低了C20∶1n-9、C20∶4n-6、C22∶5n-3和C22∶6n-3的含量(P<0.01)。本研究表明,高植物蛋白饲料中猪血、豆粕及酵母蛋白水解物替代10%的饲料鱼粉并未有效调节鲈鱼幼鱼鱼体、肝脏、肌肉及内脏的脂肪累积,但水解酵母蛋白在一定程度上改善了血清甘油三酯和胆固醇的代谢。水解蛋白对鲈鱼幼鱼脂肪酸组成的调节因水解蛋白的类型及鱼体组织类型而异。本研究是国内外首次系统研究不同类型水解蛋白对养殖鱼类脂肪累积的调节作用,对该领域相关研究具有重要借鉴和参考意义。
关键词:  鲈鱼  高植物蛋白饲料  水解蛋白  脂肪累积
DOI:10.11758/yykxjz.20160328002
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(31172423)和公益性行业(农业)专项(201303053)共同资助
Effects of Different Protein Hydrolysates in High Plant Protein Diets on the Lipid Accumulation of Juvenile Japanese Seabass (Lateolabrax japonicus)
CAO Lin,ZHANG Tingting,XU Houguo,ZHENG Keke,LIANG Mengqing
Abstract:
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of different types of protein hydrolysate in high plant protein diets on the lipid accumulation of juvenile Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus (initial body weight 31.99 g). Four experimental diets were formulated. The control diet contained 30% fishmeal. Different types of protein hydrolysate, i.e., pig blood protein hydrolysate, soy protein hydrolysate and yeast protein hydrolysate was separately added to the basal diet to replace 10% fishmeal to formulate three experimental diets. The feeding trail was conducted in sea floating net cages. Each diet was assigned to triplicate groups of 30 fish. The results showed that compared to the control group, the supplementation of protein hydrolysates from pig blood, soybean meal and yeast did not significantly influence most indices of lipid accumulation in L. japonicus. However, compared to the control group, the yeast protein hydrolysate significantly reduced the concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum (P<0.05). The fatty acid analysis showed that compared to the control group, the yeast protein hydrolysate significantly increased the C20:1n-9 content in muscle, while the soy protein hydrolysate and yeast protein hydrolysate significantly reduced the C22:5n-3 content in muscle (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the yeast protein hydrolysate significantly reduced the C20:5n-3 content in serum (P<0.05). In adipose tissue, compared to the control group, the protein hydrolysates from pig blood, soy, and yeast significantly increased the contents of saturated fatty acids, ≤18C monounsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, but significantly reduced the contents of C20:1n-9、C20:4n-6、C22:5n-3 and C22:6n-3 (P<0.01). These results suggested that in high plant protein diets the supplementation of protein hydrolysates from pig blood, soy, and yeast did not modulate the lipid accumulation in whole body, liver, muscle and gut of juvenile L. japonicus, but the yeast protein hydrolysate significantly reduced the concentrations of triglyceride, cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum. The modulation of fish fatty acid profiles by protein hydrolysates varied depending upon the type of protein hydrolysate and the type of fish tissue. This is the first study comprehensively investigating the effects of different types of protein hydrolysate on the lipid accumulation in aquaculture species, and the results were indicative for the relevant studies in the future.
Key words:  Japanese seabass Lateolabrax japonicus  High plant protein diet  Protein hydrolysate  Lipid accumulation