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发酵豆粕替代藻粉对刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)生长及体组成的影响
李宝山,张利民,张德瑞,孙永智,王世信,王际英
作者单位
李宝山 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 烟台 264006 
张利民 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 烟台 264006 
张德瑞 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 烟台 264006 
孙永智 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 烟台 264006 
王世信 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 烟台 264006 
王际英 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 烟台 264006 
摘要:
为研究发酵豆粕替代藻粉对刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)生长及体组成的影响,以发酵豆粕分别替代基础饲料中的藻粉及鱼粉藻粉混合物(2∶15),配制9组等氮实验饲料,饲喂初始体重为17.7 g左右的刺参幼参70 d。结果显示,随替代藻粉比例的升高,实验刺参的增重率及特定生长率先升后降(P<0.05);随替代混合物比例的升高,D8、D9组增重率及特定生长率显著低于前3组(P<0.05),但前3组之间无显著差异(P>0.05);替代藻粉降低了体壁粗脂肪含量(P<0.05);替代混合物降低了粗灰分含量(P<0.05);替代藻粉降低了体壁甘氨酸、蛋氨酸及半胱氨酸含量(P<0.05),提高了苯丙氨酸和组氨酸含量(P<0.05);替代混合物降低了丝氨酸、苏氨酸、甘氨酸、蛋氨酸、赖氨酸及组氨酸含量(P<0.05),提高了精氨酸、脯氨酸、苯丙氨酸及半胱氨酸含量(P<0.05);替代藻粉降低了体壁Ca、Mg、Fe、Zn、Cu、Cr、Mn及Pb含量(P<0.05);替代混合物降低了Ca、Mg、Zn、Cu、Cr及Pb含量(P<0.05),提高了Fe及Mn含量(P<0.05)。以增重率为评价指标,经SAS REG曲线拟合,发酵豆粕替代藻粉的最佳比例为29.75%;经SAS NLIN曲线拟合,替代46.46%的鱼粉藻粉混合物对刺参生长无显著影响。
关键词:  刺参  发酵豆粕  生长  体组成  氨基酸  矿物元素
DOI:10.11758/yykxjz.20160509001
分类号:
基金项目:
Effects of the Fermented Soybean Meal as a Replacement of Algae Powder on the Growth Performance and Body Composition of Juvenile Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus)
LI Baoshan,ZHANG Limin,ZHANG Derui,SUN Yongzhi,WANG Shixin,WANG Jiying
Abstract:
In recent years, the fast development of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) farming overwhelmed the supply of algae powder as the feed. In this study, we investigated whether fermented soybean meal (FSBM) could be an effective replacement of algae powder. The algae powder and the mixture of fishmeal and algae powder (2∶15) were replaced with FSBM in this study. The growth performance and body composition were tested in A. japonicus with initial body weight of 17.7 g. In the 10-week feeding trial, nine isonitrogen experimental diets were formulated. D1 was the control group; D2–D5 were algae powder-replaced groups; and D6–D9 were mixture-replaced groups. Each diet was assigned randomly to three tanks each of which contained 30 sea cucumber juveniles. The results showed that: As the proportion of replacement of algae powder increased, the weight gain rate (WGR) and the specific growth rate (SGR) first increased and then decreased. D2 showed the highest WGR and SGR, which were significantly higher than those of D4 and D5 (P<0.05). As the proportion of replacement of the mixture increased, WGR and SGR decreased significantly (P<0.05). Replacement of algae powder caused decrease in the crude lipid, Gly, Met, and Cys, and it increased the contents of Phe and His; while replacement of mixture led to decrease in crude ash of the body wall and contents of Ser, Thr, Gly, Met, Lys, and His, and it increased the contents of Arg, Pro, Phe and Cys. Replacement of powder caused decrease in contents of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Mn and Pb; Replacement of mixture led to decrease in contents of Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb, and it increased contents of Fe and Mn. Using WGR as the indictor, SAS REG analysis showed that the optimum proportion of replacement of algae powder with FSBM was 29.75%. NLIN analysis showed that the optimum replacement proportion of the mixture was 46.46%.
Key words:  Sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus  Fermented soybean meal  Growth  Body composition  Amino acid  Mineral