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不同浒苔型饲料对幼刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)生长、消化及非特异性免疫的影响
李 猛,廖梅杰,常 青,王印庚,李 彬,荣小军,高 磊,范瑞用
作者单位
李 猛 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306 
廖梅杰 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
常 青 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
王印庚 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
李 彬 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
荣小军 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
高 磊 蓬莱市大柳行兽医站 烟台 265600 
范瑞用 青岛瑞滋海珍品发展有限公司 青岛 266400 
摘要:
以浒苔、石莼、豆粕、扇贝边、葡萄糖、贝壳粉、维生素和矿物质预混料为原料配制刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)饲料,利用酿酒酵母菌菌液和碱性蛋白酶制剂对刺参饲料进行4种不同的处理,得到5组实验用饲料,分别为对照组、发酵组、酶解组、复合组和鲜浒苔组。将上述饲料饲喂初始体重为(1.92±0.02) g的幼刺参42 d,每种饲料设3个重复,每个重复30头幼刺参。结果显示,不同的浒苔型饲料对幼刺参的存活率(SR)、增重率(WGR)、特定生长率(SGR)和饲料系数(FC)有显著影响(P<0.05),而对其脏壁比(R)无显著性影响(P>0.05)。复合组和鲜浒苔组SR要显著高于酶解组(P<0.05),而与其他2组均无显著性差异(P>0.05)。鲜浒苔组WGR远高于其他各组(P<0.05),而复合组和发酵组WGR显著高于酶解组(P<0.05),与对照组差异不显著(P>0.05)。幼刺参的SGR规律与WGR一致。鲜浒苔组FC显著低于对照组、发酵组和酶解组(P<0.05),与复合组差异不显著(P>0.05)。随着摄食饲料时间的推移,对照组、发酵组、复合组和鲜浒苔组淀粉酶(AMS)活力先升高再下降后趋于稳定,而酶解组一直呈现下降趋势。酶解组纤维素酶(Cellulase)活力呈现一直下降的趋势,而其他组呈现波动变化,且均高于初始活力值。随着摄食饲料时间的推移,除酶解组外,其余各组胰蛋白酶(TRY)活力前后时间点变化差异不大,且每个采样点幼刺参TRY活力大小顺序始终是对照组>复合组>鲜浒苔组>发酵组>酶解组。不同浒苔型饲料饲喂的幼刺参体腔液中酸性磷酸酶(ACP)、碱性磷酸酶(AKP)和超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力均有显著性差异(P<0.05)。鲜浒苔组ACP活力最大,且与复合组无显著性差异(P>0.05),而显著高于其他3组(P<0.05)。鲜浒苔组和复合组AKP活力显著高于酶解组和对照组(P<0.05),与发酵组无显著性差异(P>0.05)。复合组SOD活力最大,且显著高于发酵组和酶解组(P<0.05),而与对照组和鲜浒苔组均无显著性差异(P>0.05)。由此得出,幼刺参在摄食先酶解后发酵的饲料后能够得到良好的生长效果,并可改善自身肠道消化,维持正常免疫。这为解决刺参饲料原料短缺以及浒苔高值化利用提供了依据和方法。
关键词:  浒苔  刺参  发酵  酶解  生长  消化  非特异性免疫
DOI:10.11758/yykxjz.20160510001
分类号:
基金项目:
Effects of Different Diets Containing Enteromorpha prolifera on Growth, Digestion and Non-Specific Immunity of Juvenile Sea Cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus)
LI Meng,LIAO Meijie,CHANG Qing,WANG Yingeng,LI Bin,RONG Xiaojun,GAO Lei,FAN Ruiyong
Abstract:
In this study, the diets for sea cucumbers (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) were formulated with Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva lactuca, soybean meal, glucose, scallop side, shell powder, vitamins premix and mineral premix, and processed in four ways using Brewer’s yeast and alkaline protease. The final products were 5 groups of experimental diets including the control group, the fermented group, the hydrolyzed group, the composite group and the fresh-group. Each diet was randomly given to 3 replicates of 30 sea cucumbers of which the average body weight was (1.92±0.02) g. The results were described as follows. E. prolifera-diets had significant different effects on the survival rate (SR), the weight gain rate (WGR), the specific growth rate (SGR) and the feed coefficient (FC) (P<0.05). The SR in the composite group and the fresh group was higher than that in the hydrolyzed group (P<0.05), but was not significantly different from other groups (P>0.05). The WGR in the fresh group was higher than that in other groups (P<0.05). The FC in the fresh group was lower than in all other groups except for the composite group. Over the feeding time, the intestinal amylase activity (AMS) showed an increasing-decreasing-stabilized pattern in the control group, the fermented group, the composite group and the fresh group; however, AMS had been constantly declining in the hydrolyzed group. The intestinal cellulase activity in the hydrolyzed group tended to decrease over time, and in other groups, it was higher than the initial values and had been fluctuating. Except for the hydrolyzed group, the trypsin activity in all other groups showed no significant change. E. prolifera-diets also affected the activities of acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the coelomic fluid to different extents (P<0.05). ACP in the fresh group was the highest and was significantly higher than all other groups (P<0.05) except for the composite group (P>0.05). SOD in the composite group was the highest and was significantly higher than the hydrolyzed group and the fermented group. These results suggested that juvenile sea cucumbers could benefit from the diets of the composite group and the fresh group in terms of the growth performance, the intestinal digestion and immunity. Our study also provided information on solving the shortage in raw dietary materials for sea cucumbers and making good use of E.prolifera.
Key words:  Enteromorpha prolifera  Sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)  Fermentation  Enzymolysis  Growth  Digestion  Non-specific immune