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“高抗1号”新品系刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)耐高温特性与高温期生理变化
孙明超,王印庚,廖梅杰,李 彬,蔡生力,范瑞用
作者单位
孙明超 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306;农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071; 
王印庚 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071; 
廖梅杰 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071; 
李 彬 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071; 
蔡生力 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306; 
范瑞用 青岛瑞滋海珍品发展有限公司 青岛 266400 
摘要:
2013—2015年对刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)养殖池塘进行水质监测,结合生态学、组织学观察和消化酶测定,研究了高温期“高抗1号”新品系刺参的抗逆特性与生理变化。结果显示,“高抗1号”新品系刺参进入夏眠的温度分别为29.13℃、30.47℃、29.68℃,结束夏眠温度分别为24.55℃、24.94℃、24.16℃。非选育刺参进入夏眠的温度分别为27.08℃、28.61℃、27.93℃,结束夏眠温度分别为21.33℃、21.83℃、22.06℃。“高抗1号”新品系刺参比非选育刺参的进入夏眠临界温度平均提高了1.89℃,结束夏眠的临界温度提高了2.81℃,每年夏眠期平均缩短了26.7 d。夏眠期间,刺参的消化道萎缩、变短、变细,颜色变深,肠道内无食物,其肠长、肠重和肠壁比均变小,肠道绒毛膜丰度降低,肠脊高度减小至140 μm左右;呼吸树萎缩、体积变小。夏眠过后,刺参消化道恢复正常,肠长、肠重和肠壁比变大,肠道绒毛膜丰度升高,肠脊高度增至640–660 μm。另外,随着水温升高,“高抗1号”新品系刺参和非选育刺参的淀粉酶活力、胰蛋白酶活力整体上均呈下降趋势;而夏眠过后,2种酶活力又显著上升。在同等温度条件下,新品系刺参的淀粉酶活力和胰蛋白酶活力均高于非选育刺参。研究表明,“高抗1号”新品系刺参与非选育刺参相比,对高温的耐受力表现出较大的提升,每年刺参生长期增加近30 d。这种优良性状为刺参抵御高温、提高养殖成活率、增产增收奠定了基础,亦对开展刺参健康养殖、良种推广提供了技术参考。
关键词:  刺参  夏眠  临界温度  结束夏眠  耐高温  消化酶
DOI:10.11758/yykxjz.20160523002
分类号:
基金项目:
The High Temperature Resistance and Physiological Changes of Selective Breeding “Gaokang No. 1” Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus During High-Temperature Phase
SUN Mingchao,WANG Yingeng,LIAO Meijie,LI Bin,CAI Shengli,FAN Ruiyong
Abstract:
This study investigated the resistance and related physiological changes in response to high water temperature of the new breed (Gaokang No.1) sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus for a period of 3 years, using ecological, histological and digestive enzyme assays. The results showed that for year 2013, 2014 and 2015, “Gaokang No.1” sea cucumber entered into aestivation at the aestivation temperature (AT) of 29.13℃, 30.47℃ and 29.68℃, respectively, and finished aestivation at the released aestivation temperature (RAT) of 24.55℃, 24.94℃ and 24.16℃, correspondingly. While the AT of the sea cucumber in the non-selected group was 27.08℃, 28.61℃ and 27.93℃, and the RAT was 21.33℃, 21.83℃ and 22.06℃, respectively. Compared with the non-selected sea cucumber, the aestivation critical temperature (ACT) of “Gaokang No.1” breed increased by 1.89℃, and aestivation lifted critical temperature (ALCT) increased by 2.81℃. Hence, the average aestivation period was shortened about 26.7 days a year. The intestine of sea cucumber was severely degraded after aestivation, with characteristics of atrophy, reduced length and width, dark color, and no food in the intestine. Also the intestinal chorionic abundance decreased and the intestinal ridge height was reduced to about 140 μm. The respiratory tree became atrophy in size. By comparison, when the aestivation released, sea cucumber restored to the normal intestinal length; the intestinal chorionic abundance increased significantly and the intestinal ridge height increased to about 640–660 μm. In addition, the amylase and trypsin activities tended to decrease as the water temperature increased for both “Gaokang No.1” breed and the non-selested sea cucumber. Both enzyme activities increased significantly as the aestivation released. However, the enzyme activities were higher among “Gaokang No.1” breed compared to the non-selested sea cucumber under the same rearing temperature. Compared to the non-selested sea cucumber, the “Gaokang No.1” breed can tolerate high temperature, therefore extended the production period for nearly a month. The results indicated the “Gaokang No.1” sea cucumber is a better breed in terms of high temperature resistance and shows improved survival rate and productivity. The study provides a technical reference to health management and seed production in sea cucumber culture.
Key words:  Apostichopus japonicus  Estivation  Critical temperature  Release aestivation  A High temperature resistance  Digestive enzyme