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凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)工厂化养殖系统微藻的群落特征分析
沈明明,李 健,王清印,葛红星,刘 萍,常志强
作者单位
沈明明 上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071 
李 健 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
王清印 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
葛红星 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071 
刘 萍 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
常志强 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
摘要:
2015年6–9月期间,对青岛市宝荣水产科技有限公司凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)工厂化养殖车间的6个实验池进行采样调查,分析了水体中微藻的种类组成、丰度、多样性和优势种演替特征,并结合养殖情况进行了讨论。共检出微藻5门28属49种(其中优势种14种),丰度范围为5.2×105–9.4×108 cell/L,生物量范围为1.23–208.00 mg/L,多样性指数范围为0.42–2.44。多样性指数低于0.9时,生态系统稳定性差,对虾易发病。不同养殖阶段微藻优势种种类不同,前期主要是绿藻门(Chlorophyta)、硅藻门(Bacillarionphyta)和部分甲藻门(Pyrrophyta)的种类,中、后期以蓝藻门(Cyanophyta)的微囊藻(Microcystis sp.)和颤藻(Oscillatoria sp.)为主。对虾养殖密度显著影响微藻优势种演替,300 ind/m2养殖密度(A1池)藻相稳定且以绿藻和硅藻为优势种,对虾生长良好;400–500 ind/m2养殖密度(B1、C1和C2池)颤藻在中、后期演替成为绝对优势种,对虾易发病死亡。本研究为优化对虾工厂化养殖环境、指导养殖生产提供参考。
关键词:  凡纳滨对虾  工厂化养殖  微藻  群落特征
DOI:10.11758/yykxjz.20160527002
分类号:
基金项目:
Analysis of the Microalgae Community in Industrial Aquaculture Ponds of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)
SHEN Mingming,LI Jian,WANG Qingyin,GE Hongxing,LIU Ping,CHANG Zhiqiang
Abstract:
The microalga community in 6 industrial aquaculture ponds of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was analyzed at Baorong Aquatic Science and Technology Limited Corporation in Qingdao from June to September in 2015. The composition of species, abundance, biodiversity and characteristics of dominant species succession were investigated and discussed based on the situation of shrimp culture. A total of 49 species of microalgae were identified that belonged to 28 genera and 5 phylums (including 14 dominant species). The population density of microalgae was 5.2×105–9.4×108 cell/L, the biomass was 1.23–208.00 mg/L, and the biodiversity index was 0.42–2.44. The stability of the ecosystem was weak and the shrimps were prone to outbreaks of diseases when the biodiversity index was below 0.9. The dominant species in the early stage of cultivation were green algae, diatoms and some species of dinoflagellates. Microcystis incerta and Oscillatoria willei belonging to Cyanophyta gradually became the dominant species in the middle to late stages. The culture density of shrimp had significant effects on the succession of microalga dominant species. The shrimp grew well in a stable community of microalgae where the culture density was 300 ind/m2 (pond A1) and the dominant species were mainly green algae and diatoms. The harmful Oscillatorias tended to become the dominant species in the middle to late stages as the culture density was 400–500 ind/m2 (in pond B1, C1 and C2), which easily led to the outbreak of shrimp diseases. Our study provided important information on the tuning of the environment of industrial aquaculture ponds.
Key words:  Litopenaeus vannamei  Industrial aquaculture  Microalgae species  Community characters