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黄河口海域夏季大型底栖动物的生态学特征
李少文,任中华,王田田
作者单位
李少文 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 烟台 264006 
任中华 中国科学院海洋研究所 海洋生态与环境科学重点实验室 青岛 266071 
王田田 烟台市水产研究所 烟台 264003 
摘要:
根据2012年6月黄河口海域的大型底栖动物调查数据,应用典范对应分析等方法对大型底栖动物生态学特征进行分析。结果显示,在调查海域共采集到大型底栖动物67种,隶属于6门53科,多毛类28种,节肢动物17种,软体动物16种,棘皮动物和其他类群各3种。优势种有 3种,为无尾涟虫(Leucon sp.)、丝异须虫(Heteromastus filiforms)和寡节甘吻沙蚕(Glycinde gurjanovae)。调查海域的生物量和栖息密度的平均值分别为2.03 g/m2和358 ind./m2。物种多样性指数变化范围为1.825–3.976;种类丰富度指数为0.775–4.052;物种均匀度指数为0.637–0.924。群落结构多元统计分析和典范对应分析表明,18个调查站位可分为3组,Ⅰ组(C4、D4站位),群落组成为长尾虫(Apseudes sp.)、日本鳞缘蛇尾(Ophiophragmus japonicus)、钩虾1种(Gammaridea sp.),它们的分布与水深、水温、盐度呈正相关;Ⅲ组(C1、B1站位)为丝异须虫、背蚓虫(Notomastus latericeus)群落,与氨氮、硝酸盐、总氮和溶解氧呈正相关;其余站位为Ⅱ组,为寡节甘吻沙蚕、江户明樱蛤(Moerella jedoensis)、无尾涟虫群落,与各环境因子不相关。ABC曲线分析显示出黄河口海域的大型底栖动物群落倾向于受到中等程度的干扰。环境因子中,水深与大型底栖动物丰度分布相关性最高,其次为氨氮。
关键词:  黄河口海域  大型底栖动物  群落结构  环境因子  典范对应分析
DOI:10.11758/yykxjz.20160711001
分类号:
基金项目:
Ecological Characteristics of Macrobenthos at the Yellow River Estuary in Summer
LI Shaowen,REN Zhonghua,WANG Tiantian
Abstract:
Based on the survey data at the Yellow River estuary in June 2012, the characteristics of macrobenthos were analyzed using canonical correspondence analysis and other methods. Sixty-seven species of macrobenthos were identified, which belonged to 6 phylums and 53 families. Among them, 28 species were crustacea; 17 were arthropods; 16 were mollusca; 3 were echinodermata; 3 belonged to other benthic groups. There were three dominant species including Leucon sp., Heteromastus filiforms and Glycinde gurjanovae. The average biomass and the habitat density were 2.03 g/m2 and 358 ind./m2, respectively. The ranges of Margalef species richness index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou’s evenness index were 0.775–4.052, 1.825–3.976, and 0.637–0.924, respectively. The results of MDS and CCA indicated that 18 stations could be divided into three groups. The community of GroupⅠ(C4, D4) was composed of Apseudes sp.-Ophiophragmus japonicus-Gammaridea sp., and their distribution were positively correlated with the water depth, water temperature and salinity. Group Ⅲ(C1, B1) had H. filiforms-Notomastus latericeus, of which the distribution were positively correlated with ammonia, nitrate, total nitrogen and dissolved oxygen. GroupⅡincluded all other stations, and it had G. gurjanovae-Moerella jedoensis-Leucon sp., and their distribution had no obvious relationship with environmental factors. ABC curving analysis showed that the macrobenthic community tend to be disturbed moderately. The depth and ammonia were the most and second most relevant factors in the distribution of abundance.
Key words:  Yellow River Estuary  Macrobenthos  Community structure  Environmental factors  Canonical correspondence analysis