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山东省主要贝类养殖区重金属环境状况及贝类安全风险分析
孙 珊,赵玉庭,王立明,由丽萍,陶慧敏,谷伟丽,张秀珍
作者单位
孙 珊 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 烟台 264006 
赵玉庭 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 烟台 264006 
王立明 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 烟台 264006 
由丽萍 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 烟台 264006 
陶慧敏 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 烟台 264006 
谷伟丽 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 烟台 264006 
张秀珍 山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 烟台 264006 
摘要:
依据2014年8月对山东省近岸贝类养殖区的调查资料,研究了养殖区海水、沉积物和生物体中6种重金属的含量及富集情况,并对贝类养殖区进行质量及生态风险评价。结果显示,海水中重金属含量从高到低为As、Cu、Cr、Pb、Cd和Hg;沉积物中重金属含量从高到低为Cr、Pb、Cu、As、Cd和Hg;贝类体中重金属含量从高到低为Cu、As、Cd、Cr、Pb和Hg。生态环境质量评价结果表明,养殖区海水中重金属含量均符合Ⅱ类海水水质标准;沉积物重金属含量均符合Ⅰ类海洋沉积物质量标准;贝类体中Hg、Cd、Pb和Cr均符合《食品安全国家标准食品中污染物限量》,Cu符合Ⅰ类海洋生物质量标准。贝类对重金属的富集能力从大到小为Cu、Cd、Hg、Pb、Cr和As,调查海域贝类体中的Cu、Cd富集系数较高,其他重金属富集系数相对较低。重金属质量安全风险分析表明,贝类体中Cd、Pb、As、Cr和Hg的膳食暴露量较低,处于安全范围内,但建议去除内脏后食用。
关键词:  贝类养殖区  重金属  环境评价  富集系数  贝类安全风险
DOI:10.11758/yykxjz.20160910001
分类号:
基金项目:
Status of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Shellfish Culture Area of Shangdong Province and the Risk Analysis of Heavy Metal Elements in the Shellfish
SUN Shan,ZHAO Yuting,WANG Liming,YOU Liping,TAO Huimin,GU Weili,ZHANG Xiuzhen
Abstract:
In this study, we evaluated the accumulation of heavy metals in organisms, and discussed its effect on the quality and food safety of the shellfish. The status of heavy metal pollution was analyzed in the seawater, sediments and organisms in the major shellfish culture area of Shangdong Province in August 2014. The contents of heavy metals in the water followed the order As>Cu>Cr>Pb>Cd>Hg; the order in sediments was Cr>Pb>Cu>As>Cd>Hg; in organisms, it was Cu>As>Cd>Cr>Pb>Hg. It was found that the contents of heavy metals in the seawater met the second seawater quality standard, and those in sediments complied with the first marine sediment quality standard. We also found that the contents of Hg, Cd, Pb and Cr in seashells were below the limit according to the standard for the toxic substance in the non-environmental pollution aquatic products. The level of Cu was lower than the limit according to the first marine biological quality standard. The enrichment coefficients of heavy metals in the shellfish followed the order Cu>Cd>Hg>Pb>Cr>As. There accumulation of heavy metals in the shellfish was moderate. Based on the evaluation of the heavy metal pollution in the shellfish, we concluded that the food safety risk of the shellfish in the major culture area of Shangdong Province was relatively low. However, we highly recommend the removal of internal organs of the shellfish before consumption.
Key words:  Shellfish culture area  Heavy metal  Pollution evaluation  Accumulation  Shellfish quality safety