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凡纳滨对虾家系幼虾淡化和养殖阶段存活性状遗传参数估计
郝登春1, 栾 生2,3, 曹宝祥2,3, 郭聚涛4, 罗 坤2,3, 陈宝龙2,3, 孟宪红2,3, 许圣钰4, 孔 杰2,3
1.上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306;2.农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;3.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071;4.河北鑫海水产生物技术有限公司 黄骅 061100
摘要:
准确估计育种目标性状的遗传参数,评估其改良潜力,是制定育种方案、进行选择育种工作的重要前提条件。本研究对100个凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)家系15000尾仔虾个体进行淡化和低盐养殖实验,分析了2个阶段家系间存活率的差异,并进一步估计存活性状的遗传力。结果显示,2个阶段存活率范围分别为19.3%~100.00%和11.86%~99.22%,平均存活率分别为66.7%和67.5%。家系幼虾期总体存活率为6.67%~90.67%,平均存活率为46.91%。统计分析显示,2个阶段家系间存活率差异极显著(P<0.01),存活率的相关系数为0.61(P<0.01),呈中度正相关(0.32.58);基于A+C模型,3个阶段遗传力转换后估计值分别为0.06、0.05和0.07,与0相比,估计值均未达到显著水平(z<1.96)。基于A模型和A+C模型,获得的2个阶段间家系存活性状育种值的相关系数分别为0.41±0.09和0.48±0.09。由于半同胞家系比例仅为47%,家系单独在网箱中测试,家系遗传效应与共同环境效应部分混淆,因此,基于A模型获得的遗传力估计值偏高,基于A+C模型获得的遗传力估计值偏低。本研究结果表明,通过多代选择育种,可以改良凡纳滨对虾幼虾淡化和低盐度养殖存活性能。
关键词:  凡纳滨对虾  淡化实验  存活率  遗传力
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Genetic Parameters of Survival of Juvenile Families of Litopenaeus vannamei During Desalination and Culture Stages
HAO Dengchun1, LUAN Sheng2,3,1, CAO Baoxiang2,3,1, GUO Jutao4, LUO Kun2,3,1, CHEN Baolong2,3,1, MENG Xianhong2,3,1, XU Shengyu4, KONG Jie2,3,1
1.College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306;2.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;3.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071;4.Hebei Xinhai Aquatic Biological Technology Co., Ltd, Huanghua 061100
Abstract:
Genetic parameters of breeding object traits are important to design breeding scheme and evaluate selection response before performing a selective breeding program. In this study, a total of 15000 individuals from 100 families of Litopenaeus vannamei at the juvenile stage were desalinated and reared at a low salinity of 5 to explore the survival rate and the heritability. The results showed that the range of the survival rate at the desalination stage and culture stage were 19.33%–100.00% and 11.9%–99.2%, and the average survival rate were 66.7% and 67.5%, respectively. The range of the overall survival rate at the juvenile stage was 6.67%–90.67% with the average survival rate 46.91%. There were significant differences on the survival rate between families at two stages (P<0.01). There was significant and moderate positive correlation on the survival rate of families between two stages (r=0.61, P<0.01). The heritabilities of survival for two stages were estimated by the model of the additive genetic effect (A) and the model combining A and the common environmental effect (C). Based on the A model, the heritability of survival for the desalination stage, culture stage and combination of two stages were 0.09, 0.10 and 0.14, respectively, which were significantly different from zero (z﹥2.58). Based on the A+C model, heritability of survival were 0.06, 0.05 and 0.07, respectively, which were not significantly different from zero (z<1.96). The genetic correlation on the survival rate of families between two stages for the A and A+C models were 0.41±0.09 and 0.48±0.09, respectively. The additive genetic effect was partially confounded with the common environmental effect because the proportion of half-sib families to full-sib families was only 47% when each family were cultured in a separate cage. Therefore, the heritability estimates based on the A model were overestimated, and the heritability estimates based on the A+C model was underestimated. The results implied that the adaptability of low salinity for Pacific white shrimp can be improved through a selective breeding program.
Key words:  Litopenaeus vannamei  Desalination  Survival  Heritability