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黄渤海鱼类优先监控重金属污染物的筛选与评价
韩丹丹1,2, 赵 峰1, 牟伟丽3, 张道旭3, 周德庆1
1.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室 海洋药物与生物制品功能实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;2.上海海洋大学食品学院 上海 201306;3.蓬莱京鲁渔业有限公司 烟台 265600
摘要:
本研究采用文献检索及历史数据分析的方法,对黄渤海鱼类体内重金属污染情况进行分析,最终筛选出需优先监控的重金属污染物。结果显示,通过对黄渤海鱼类体内重金属含量的超标率、检出率和限量标准进行分析,甄别出需优先监控的重金属有Cr、As、Cd、Pb和Hg。结合各污染物的生物富集因子(Bioconcentration Factors, BCF)、毒性效应、污染指数和超标率等,用综合评价法分析确定黄渤海鱼类优先监控重金属污染物。总体评价结果为Cd>Hg>As*>Cr>Pb,其中,Cd的综合评价总分最高,需高度关注。按照鱼类品种进一步分析显示,舌鳎(Cynoglossus robustus)、蓝点马鲛 (Scomberomorus niphonius) 体内的Cd和矛尾复虎鱼(Symechogobius hasta)体内的As*属于优先监控对象。对黄渤海8个沿岸城市进行取样,检测结果表明,舌鳎和蓝点马鲛体内的Cd属于优先监控污染物,与筛选结果基本一致,证明了此评价方法的可靠性。
关键词:  黄渤海  优先监控重金属  筛选  综合评价
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Hazard Analysis and Screening of the Prior Heavy Metals of Priority Pollution in Fish in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea
HAN Dandan1,2, ZHAO Feng1, MU Weili3, ZHANG Daoxu3, ZHOU Deqing1
1.Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;2.College of Food Sciences and Technology, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306;3.Penglai Jinglu Fishery Co., Ltd., Yantai 265600
Abstract:
With increasingly serious heavy metal pollution in the aquatic environment, the pollution status in fish has affected the food safety and attracted much attention. It is urgent to know the condition of heavy metal pollution in fish in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. It is also crucial to know different metal pollutions in one fish species and to identify the prominent type of heavy metal. Here we analyzed the status of heavy metal pollution in fish in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea based on the literature and historical data, and compared the different situations to determine the prior pollution. We analyzed the exceeding standard rate, the detection rate and the limitation standard of heavy metals and found the priority order as Cr, As, Cd, Pb and Hg. The prior pollution in fish in the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea were determined using the comprehensive evaluation method with the bio concentration factors (BCF), the toxicity effect, the pollution index and the exceeding standard rate. The score of Cd was the highest, and the order of scores was Cd > Hg > As* > Cr > Pb. Different fish species had different prior heavy metal pollution. Cd was the prior heavy metal in Cynoglossus robustus and Scomberomorus niphonius, and As* was the prior one in Synechogobius hast. Then we conducted the validation experiment with samples including C. robustus, Mugil cephalus, Synechogobius hasta, S. niphonius and Larimichthys polyactis that were collected from eight coastal cities along the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea. The results of the validation experiments were consistent with those of the screening method, therefore the screening method should be reliable.
Key words:  Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea  Priority pollution of heavy metals  Screening  Comprehensive assessment