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饲料蛋白质和能量含量对云纹龙胆石斑鱼幼鱼生长、体组成及消化酶活力的影响
公绪鹏1,2, 李宝山2, 张利民2, 张 燕1,2, 王际英2
1.上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306;2.山东省海洋资源与环境研究院 山东省海洋生态修复重点实验室 烟台 264006
摘要:
为探求云纹龙胆石斑鱼(Epinephelus lanceolatus♂×E. moara♀)幼鱼饲料的最适蛋白质和能量含量,以鱼粉和大豆浓缩蛋白为蛋白源、添加鱼油构建能量梯度,配制粗蛋白含量为46%、50%和54%,能量含量为20.00、20.50和21.00 kJ/g,蛋能比为22.04~26.87 mg/kJ的9组饲料,编号为D1~D9组,投喂初始体重为(46.23±0.51) g的云纹龙胆石斑鱼幼鱼56 d。结果显示,蛋白质和能量的交互作用对云纹龙胆石斑鱼幼鱼增重率影响显著(P<0.05),蛋白质和能量升高显著提高增重率和特定生长率(P<0.05)。蛋白质和能量的交互作用对蛋白质沉积率和肝体比影响显著(P<0.05),蛋白质升高显著提高能量保留率和肥满度(P<0.05),蛋白质效率先升后降(P<0.05);能量升高显著提高蛋白质效率和能量保留率(P<0.05);D6组蛋白质沉积率和蛋白质效率显著高于其他组(P<0.05)。蛋白质和能量的交互作用对全鱼及肌肉水分、粗蛋白、粗灰分均无显著影响(P>0.05),全鱼及肌肉粗蛋白随饲料粗蛋白升高而升高(P<0.05),水分随能量升高而降低(P<0.05),全鱼粗脂肪随蛋能比降低而升高(P<0.05)。蛋白质和能量的交互作用对胰蛋白酶、脂肪酶和淀粉酶活力影响显著(P<0.05),胃蛋白酶活力随蛋白质含量升高而升高(P<0.05),能量对其无显著影响(P>0.05);D6组胰蛋白酶活力最高,其随饲料蛋能比降低呈先升后降的趋势(P<0.05),能量为21.00 kJ/g时,脂肪酶活力显著高于其他组(P<0.05)。综上,在设定的蛋白质和能量范围内云纹龙胆石斑鱼幼鱼饲料以50%粗蛋白,21.00 kJ/g能量为宜。
关键词:  云纹龙胆石斑鱼  蛋白质  能量  蛋能比  体组成  消化酶
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Effects of Dietary Protein and Energy Levels on Growth, Body Composition and Digestive Enzymes Activities of Juvenile Hybrid Grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus♂×E. moara♀
GONG Xupeng1,2, LI Baoshan2, ZHANG Limin2, ZHANG Yan1,2, WANG Jiying2
1.College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306;2.Shandong Marine Resource and Environment Research Institute, Shandong Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Restoration, Yantai 264006
Abstract:
In order to investigate the optimal dietary protein and energy levels of a new juvenile hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂×E. moara♀), nine diets were formulated containing three dietary protein levels (46%, 50% and 54% crude protein) and three dietary energy levels (20.00 kJ/g, 20.50 kJ/g and 21.00 kJ/g gross energy), the dietary protein-energy ratio was in the range of 22.04 to 26.87 mg/kJ. Juvenile grouper averaging (46.23±0.51) g were fed the test diets for 56 days. The results indicated that the interaction between protein and energy had a significant effect on the weight gain (WG) of grouper (P<0.05), the weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing of dietary protein and energy levels (P<0.05). Protein deposition rate (PDR) and hepatosomatic index (HSI) were significantly affected by the interaction between protein and energy (P<0.05). The energy retention rate (ERR) and condition factor (CF) increased with increasing of dietary protein levels (P<0.05), while the protein efficiency ratio (PER) increased first and decreased afterwards (P<0.05). The PER and ERR increased with increasing of dietary energy levels (P<0.05). PDR and PER of D6 group were significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05). The interaction of protein and energy had no significant effects on moisture, crude protein and crude ash of whole fish and muscle (P>0.05). The crude protein of whole fish and muscle increased with increasing of dietary protein levels (P>0.05). Moisture decreased with increasing of dietary energy levels (P<0.05). Crude fat of whole fish increased with decreasing of dietary protein-energy ratio (P<0.05). The interaction of protein and energy had significant effect on the activities of trypsin, lipase and amylase (P<0.05). The pepsin activity increased with increasing of dietary protein levels (P<0.05), and dietary energy levels had no significant effect on it (P>0.05). The trypsin activity of D6 group was significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05), which increased first and then decreased with decreasing of dietary protein-energy ratio (P<0.05). The lipase activity of fish fed diets containing 21.00 kJ/g energy was significantly higher than other groups (P<0.05). According to these results, a diet containing 50% protein and 21.00 kJ/g energy was recommended for efficient growth of juvenile hybrid grouper.
Key words:  Epinephelus lanceolatus♂×E. moara♀  Protein  Energy  Protein-energy ratio  Body composition  Digestive enzyme