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几种消毒剂对凡纳滨对虾致病性弧菌的杀灭作用
刘志轩,王印庚,张 正,王 凯,蔡生力,包海岩,姚学良,张 振
1.上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;3.天津市水产技术推广站 天津 300321;4.青岛远大海洋生物科技有限公司 青岛 266035
摘要:
本研究对分离的副溶血弧菌(Vibrio parahaemolyticus)、哈维氏弧菌(Vibrio harveyi)、溶藻弧菌(Vibrio alginolyticus)及Vibrio sp. Ex25共4株急性肝胰腺坏死病(AHPND)致病菌(编号分别为PV130903A、PV140731A、PV150526A和PV140821A)进行了杀灭作用实验,研究了聚六亚甲基胍(PHMG)、双氧水(H2O2)、聚维酮碘(PVPI)及二氧化氯(ClO2) 4种消毒剂对4株致病菌的杀灭浓度、杀灭时间及杀灭率的比较分析;同时追踪了PHMG在凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)养殖过程中对池塘水体弧菌的杀灭效果。结果显示,2 μl/L的ClO2作用1 h、1 μl/L的PHMG或1 μl/L的H2O2作用2 h、8 μl/L的PVPI作用6 h可完全杀灭4种弧菌,PHMG和PVPI的杀菌率随时间的推移逐渐升高,H2O2和ClO2的杀菌率在达到峰值之后均有不同程度的下降。在池塘养殖水体的弧菌杀灭实验中,浓度为0.5、1、2 μl/L的PHMG可使养殖水体中的弧菌总量分别在第4天、第3天和第3天下降到最低值,分别为初始弧菌总数的79.14%、82.48%和87.30%;各浓度实验组弧菌总量达到最低值后逐步升高,直到第11天时上述各浓度实验组的弧菌总量仍然低于消毒前初始值的3.58%、5.53%和6.10%。综合比较分析,这4种消毒剂对致病性弧菌的杀菌能力强弱为:PHMG>H2O2>ClO2>PVPI。结合消毒剂的杀菌浓度、杀菌效果、持续时间以及使用成本等几个方面考虑,认为PHMG具有高效、持久等优点,在水产养殖中将会有良好的应用前景。
关键词:  副溶血弧菌  哈维氏弧菌  溶藻弧菌  Vibrio sp.  聚六亚甲基胍  杀菌效果
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Germicidal Effect of Several Disinfectants on the Pathogenic Bacteria of Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND) in Litopenaeus vannamei
LIU Zhixuan1,2,3, WANG Yingeng1,2,3, ZHANG Zheng2,3, WANG Kai2,3, CAI Shengli1, BAO Haiyan4, YAO Xueliang4, ZHANG Zhen5
1.College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306;2.Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes;3.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;4.Tianjin Fisheries Technology Extension Station, Tianjin 300321;5.Qingdao Grand Marine Biological Technology Co. Ltd, Qingdao 266035
Abstract:
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) has pathogenic diversity causing high mortality and economic losses in shrimp culture. We isolated PV130903A (Vibrio parahaemolyticus), PV140731A (V. harveyi), PV150526A (V. alginolyticus), and PV140821A (V. sp. Ex25) from the infected Litopenaeus vannamei, and designed a germicidal experiment on the isolated pathogens. Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), povidone-iodine (PVPI), and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) were chosen to determine their concentration, killing rate, and killing time on the four pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, an experiment was also conducted to determine the killing efficiency of PHMG on the Vibrios in the pond water. The results showed that 2 μl/L ClO2 killed all the bacteria in 1 h; 1 μl/L PHMG and H2O2 killed all the bacteria in 2 h; and 6 μl/L PVPI killed all the four bacteria in 6 h. It is noteworthy that the killing rate of PHMG and PVPI gradually increased with time. In contrast, the killing rate of H2O2 and ClO2 decreased after attaining the peak value. In the experiment carried out on the Vibrios in the pond water, 0.5 μL/L, 1 μL/L, and 2 μL/L PHMG decreased the total amount of Vibrios in the water to the minimal value of 79.14% on day 4, 82.48% on day 3, and 87.30% on day 3, respectively. Furthermore, the total amount of Vibrios in all the three concentration groups recovered slowly after reaching the minimal value. On day 11, the total amount of Vibrios in the three groups was still lower than the initial value of 3.58%, 5.53%, and 6.10%, respectively. The bactericidal ability of these four disinfectants was in the order: PHMG > H2O2 > ClO2 > PVPI. Based on the bactericide concentration, germicidal efficacy, duration, and cost, it was proved that PHMG has be efficiently used in aquaculture and it has a good application prospect in the future.
Key words:  Vibrio parahaemolyticus  Vibrio harveyi  Vibrio alginolyticus  Vibrio sp.  Polyhexamethylene guanidine  Germicidal effect