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水产养殖容量研究进展及应用
刘 慧1, 蔡碧莹1,2
1.中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;2.上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306
摘要:
近30年来,全球水产养殖产量以接近9%的年增长率持续增长。快速发展的水产养殖业在保障世界粮食供应的同时,也带来环境污染和生物多样性下降等一系列生态环境问题,引起国际社会的广泛关注。水产养殖的资源和环境承载力,即养殖容量与生态容量问题,已成为水产养殖业可持续发展中迫切需要解决的问题。本文概述了水产养殖容量和环境容量概念的起源及其发展,例举了养殖容量研究的代表性成果,分析了养殖容量的估算方法及养殖容量模型的发展历程,并探讨了其存在问题以及在水产养殖管理中的应用前景,以期推动以养殖容量评估为基础的水产养殖区规划。水产养殖容量的科学评估与综合应用,可在一定程度上解决制约水产养殖业可持续发展的生态环境问题,并为建立基于生态系统的水产养殖管理与空间规划提供科学依据。
关键词:  养殖容量  环境容纳量  水产养殖  养殖区规划
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Advance in Research and Application on Aquaculture Carrying Capacity
LIU Hui1, CAI Biying1,2
1.Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;2.College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
Abstract:
In the past thirty years, global aquaculture production continues to grow at an annual rate of nearly 9%. The rapid development of global aquaculture not only helps maintaining world food supply, but also brings environmental pollution, biodiversity decline and a series of ecological problems, causing widespread concern in the international community. The issue of aquaculture carrying capacity, that is, the carrying capacity of resource and environment for aquaculture, has become a worldwide concern and a key scientific question for sustainable aquaculture development. In this paper, evolvement of the concept of aquaculture carrying capacity and environmental carrying capacity are elucidated briefly, exemplary work on aquaculture carrying capacity are introduced, the development of assessment methods and modeling of aquaculture carrying capacity are analyzed, and its related issues and prospective application in aquaculture governance are discussed in order to promote carrying capacity-based aquaculture spatial planning. Scientific evaluation and comprehensive application of aquaculture carrying capacity may solve the environmental problems constraining the sustainable development of mariculture to a certain degree, and may provide scientific basis for ecosystem-based aquaculture spatial planning and governance.
Key words:  Carrying capacity  Aquaculture environmental carrying capacity  Aquaculture  Aquaculture spatial planning