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温度对凸壳肌蛤能量收支的影响
吕旭宁1,2, 王晓芹1,2, 吴亚林1,2, 姜娓娓3, 房景辉2, 方建光2,4, 王军威5, 张义涛5, 蒋增杰2,4
1.上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306;2.农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学 研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;3.中国科学院海洋研究所 青岛 266071;4.青岛市海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程 功能实验室 青岛 266071;5.楮岛水产有限公司 荣成 264300
摘要:
凸壳肌蛤(Arcuatula senhousei)是虾蟹等养殖品种的优质饵料生物,也是极具养殖潜力的贝类品种。为了深入了解其生理代谢,利用室内静水法对不同温度(7℃、15℃、23℃、31℃)凸壳肌蛤的摄食率、排粪率、耗氧率、排氨率等生理指标进行了研究,并建立了能量收支方程。结果显示,23℃时的滤水率、摄食率、耗氧率、同化效率均显著高于其他温度梯度(P<0.05),分别达到了1.09 L/(g·h)、24.46 mg/(g·h)、3.50 mg/(g·h)和62.93%;7℃时的滤水率、摄食率、耗氧率、排粪率、排氨率均低于其他温度梯度,分别为0.24 L/(g·h)、6.04 mg/(g·h)、1.02 mg/(g·h)、4.20 mg/(g·h)、2.33 μmol/(g·h)。且滤水率、摄食率、耗氧率、同化效率随着温度升高都呈先升高后下降的趋势,在23℃时均达到最高值。不同温度下的能量收支方程为:100C = 58.12F + 46.74R + 2.54U – 7.40P (7℃);100C = 44.28F + 29.14R + 1.85U + 24.73P (15℃);100C = 17.18F + 41.81R + 6.64U + 34.37P (23℃);100C = 53.35F + 28.26R + 14.66U + 3.73P (31℃)。能量收支研究表明,生长能(P)、呼吸能(R)、排泄能(U)和粪便能(F)占摄食能(C)的比例分别为–7.4%~34.37%、28.26%~46.74%、1.85%~ 14.66%、17.18%~ 58.12%,23℃时生长能占摄食能的比例显著高于其他温度梯度(P<0.05),达到了34.37%;7℃时最低,为–7.40%。研究结果为深入了解凸壳肌蛤的生理能量学提供了数据支撑。
关键词:  凸壳肌蛤  温度  同化效率  氧氮比  能量收支
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Effect of temperature on the energy budget of Arcuatula senhousei
LÜ Xuning1,2, WANG Xiaoqin1,2, WU Yalin1,2, JIANG Weiwei3, FANG Jinghui2, FANG Jianguang2,4, WANG Junwei5, ZHANG Yitao5, JIANG Zengjie2,4
1.College of Fishersies and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306;2.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture of Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;3.Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (Qingdao), Qingdao 266071;4.Laboratory for Marine Ecology and Environmental Science, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071;5.Chudao Fishing Limited Company, Rongcheng 264300
Abstract:
Arcuatula senhousia is a high-quality food for shrimps, crabs, and other aquaculture species and is a type of shellfish with a high breed latent capacity. The effects of temperature (7℃, 15℃, 23℃, 31℃) on the physiological metabolism of A. senhousia were studied using the stagnant water method under controlled laboratory conditions in October 2015, to obtain a deeper understanding of its physiological metabolism and to establish its energy budget. The results showed that the filtration rate, feeding rate, oxygen consumption rate, and assimilation efficiency of A. senhousia at 23℃ were significantly higher than those at other temperatures (P<0.05), by up to 1.09 L/(g·h), 24.46 mg/(g·h), 3.50 mg/(g·h), and 62.93%, respectively. The filtration rate, feeding rate, oxygen consumption rate, fecal pellet production rate, and ammonia excretion rate of A. senhousia at 7℃ were significantly lower than those at other temperatures (P<0.05), as low as 0.24 L/(g·h), 6.04 mg/(g·h), 1.02 mg/(g·h), 4.20 mg/(g·h), and 2.33 μmol/(g·h), respectively. With increased temperature, the filtration rate, feeding rate, oxygen consumption rate, and assimilation efficiency of A. senhousia increased and then decreased, reaching the highest value at 23℃. The energy budget equations at different temperatures are as follows: 100C=58.12F+46.74R+2.54U–7.40P (7℃); 100C=44.28F+29.14R+1.85U+24.73P (15℃); 100C=17.18F+41.81R+6.64U+34.37P (23℃); 100C= 53.35F+28.26R+14.66U+3.73P (31℃); The energy budget equations show that the energy required for growth (P), respiration (R), excretion (U), and feces (F) accounts for –7.4% to 34.37%, 28.26% to 46.74%, 1.85% to 14.66%, and 17.18% to 58.12% of the feeding energy (C), respectively. The proportion of growth energy to feeding energy varies greatly at different temperatures. Growth energy accounts for the highest percentage (34.37%) at 23℃ (P<0.05) and the lowest percentage (–7.40%) at 7℃. The results of this study provide theoretical guidance for a deeper understanding of the physiological energetics of A. senhousia.
Key words:  Arcuatula senhousia  Temperature  Assimilation efficiency  Oxygen-nitrogen ratio  Energy budget