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发展中国南海热带岛礁海洋牧场——机遇、现状与展望
许 强1, 刘 维2, 高 菲1, 王爱民1
1.南海海洋资源利用国家重点实验室 海南大学海洋学院 海口 570228;2.海南省海洋与渔业科学院 海口 570228
摘要:
广阔的南海热带海域拥有得天独厚的岛礁资源与环境优势,具有巨大的开发利用潜力。近年来,在国家“海洋强国”战略的提出与稳步践行的背景之下,加快南海岛礁渔业资源的保护与可持续利用已迫在眉睫。现代海洋牧场是集生境修复、资源养护、休闲渔业和景观生态于一体的渔业生产新业态,真正实现了海洋经济发展和海洋生态环境保护并重,但目前南海热带岛礁海洋牧场建设仍严重滞后。充分利用南海热带岛礁海域的资源与环境优势,发展热带海洋牧场可以有力振兴岛礁经济、保护与合理开发岛礁资源,同时也是维护南海海洋权益、实践“海洋强国”战略的有力举措。本文论述了南海热带岛礁海域开展海洋牧场建设的优势,包括政策优势、自然地理优势、资源优势和产业经济优势等;提出南海热带岛礁海洋牧场的适宜建设模式,主要包括资源养护与增殖型海洋牧场和休闲旅游型海洋牧场;综述了广东、广西和海南省在热带近岸和岛礁海洋牧场建设方面的进展;阐述了热带岛礁牧场建设面临的困难和风险,包括气候与自然灾害、生物敌害、基础设施落后、海域使用权审批严格等问题;基于对问题的分析,提出了相关的对策与建议,包括科学选址、优化设施设计与投放方案、研发敌害应对技术、提升自动化信息化运营管理能力、创新牧场投资与运行模式、加大政府政策支持与扶持力度等,相关建议以期为未来南海热带岛礁海洋牧场建设提供策略支持。
关键词:  南海  岛礁  热带  海洋牧场
DOI:
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基金项目:
Development of Marine Ranching at Tropical Island Area in South China Sea-Advantages, Status and Prospects
XU Qiang1, LIU Wei2, GAO Fei1, WANG Aimin1
1.State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, College of Marine Sciences, Hainan University, Haikou 570228;2.Hainan Academy of Ocean and Fisheries Sciences, Haikou 570228
Abstract:
The tropical South China Sea has profound development potential for its wide sea area, excellent marine environment, high biodiversity, and abundant bio-resource species. Recently, under the background of coastal fishery resource degradation, it has become vital to speed up the protection and sustainable utilization of tropical island fishery resources in this area. Marine ranching is a new type of modern fishery, which combines habitat remediation, bio-resource restocking, leisure fishery, and landscape ecology. It can help to develop the marine economy together with effective protection of the ecological environment. The development of marine ranching in the wide, tropical South China Sea area has been slow. There are several advantages to carrying out marine ranching in the tropical South China Sea, such as in political, natural habitat, bio-resources, and industrial economy aspects, etc. Two appropriate marine ranching types were identified, including stock enhancement and tourism and leisure types. The progress of tropical coastal and offshore island marine ranching construction in Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan provinces were reviewed, especially the first successful construction of island marine ranching around Wuzhizhou Island in Sanya and the first coral reef marine ranching at Lingyang reef in Sanshan. Several potential risks affecting tropical offshore island marine ranching development were also documented, such as extreme weather (typhoon), predators, poor basic living facilities on islands, long distance for transportation, application difficulty on the using right of the marine ranching construction area, expensive fees for use of the sea area, etc. Based on considerations above, we provide detailed suggestions, including scientifically selecting sites, optimizing artificial facility design, developing new anti-corrosion reef material, deployment protocols, and anti-wave mooring techniques. We also give suggestions for: development of predator prevention techniques (to increase the recapture rate of released animals); development of automatic operation, monitoring, and management systems; development of feasible investment and operation modes; and more policy support from the government.
Key words:  South China Sea  Offshore island  Tropical area  Marine ranching