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渤海中国对虾生态容量变化研究
林群1, 单秀娟1,2, 王俊1, 李忠义1
1.农业农村部黄渤海渔业资源环境科学观测实验站 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学 与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071
摘要:
基于1982年和2014~2015年渤海渔业资源与环境调查数据,采用Ecopath模型,分析了渤海生态系统的营养关系、结构及功能参数,评估了中国对虾(Fenneropenaeus chinensis)在渤海的生态容量变化。结果显示,渤海生态系统中底栖甲壳类、软体动物等功能群处于重要的营养位置,但中国对虾不是渤海生态系统的关键种,其生物量的增加对口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)、三疣梭子蟹(Portunus trituberculatus)、多毛类、底栖甲壳类有负影响,花鲈(Lateolabrax japonicus)、虾虎鱼类等生物量的增加将对中国对虾产生负影响。渤海生态系统2个时期均处于发育的不稳定期,仍有较高的剩余生产量有待利用,2014~2015年渤海生态系统成熟度和稳定性较1982年有所降低,系统出现一定程度的退化。中国对虾1982年和2014~2015年在渤海的生态容量为0.810和0.702 t/km2;与当年依据调查数据评估的生物量相比较,中国对虾有较大的增殖潜力,当生物量增长至71.68倍和585倍时,仍不会超过生态容量。
关键词:  渤海  中国对虾  营养关系  生态容量  Ecopath模型
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Changes in Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) carrying capacity of the Bohai Sea
LIN Qun1, SHAN Xiujuan1,2, WANG Jun1, LI Zhongyi1
1.The Yellow & Bohai Seas Scientific Observation and Experiment Station for Fishery Resources and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Resources and Eco-Environment, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;2.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266071
Abstract:
In this study, data from surveys of fishery resources and environments collected from the Bohai Sea ware used to construct an Ecopath model of 1982 and 2014~2015, respectively. Based on the models, we analyzed the trophic impact relationship, structure, and functional parameters of the Bohai Sea ecosystem. Furthermore, we calculated the ecological carrying capacity for Chinese shrimp in the Bohai Sea and compared its changes between the two periods. Trophic impact and keystoness index results showed that the Chinese shrimp was not a keystone species or an important functional group of this ecosystem. Benthic crustaceans, mollusks, and other functional groups occupied important trophic positions in the Bohai Sea ecosystem. The increase in Chinese shrimp biomass will have a negative impact on Oratosquilla oratoria, Portunus trituberculatus, other benthic crustaceans, and polychaetes. The increase in the biomass of functional groups such as Lateolabrax japonicus and gobies may have a negative impact on Chinese shrimp. Network analysis showed that this ecosystem was at an unstable developmental stage during these two periods, and the Bohai Sea ecosystem had higher surplus production. A comparison of the 1982 and 2014~2015 models showed that the maturity and stability of the ecosystem decreased, resulting from its degeneration. The carrying capacity of Chinese shrimp was found to be 0.810 and 0.702 t/km2 in Bohai Sea in 1982 and 2014~2015, respectively. Compared with its current biomass, Chinese shrimp had great potential for continuous enhancement, e.g., by releasing larvae in the Bohai Sea, and the ecological carrying capacity was not exceeded even when the biomass of the Chinese shrimp was increased by 71.68 and 585 fold in 1982 and 2014~2015, respectively. This study provides information for rational implementation of stock enhancement and promotion of sustainable development of fisheries resources in this sea area.
Key words:  Bohai Sea  Fenneropenaeus chinensis  Trophic impact relationship  Ecological carrying capacity  Ecopath model