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3种养殖石斑鱼的肌肉营养成分分析与品质评价
赵亭亭1,2, 张岩2, 陈超2, 李炎璐2, 张廷廷2, 乔莹2, 翟介明3, 李文升3
1.水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心 上海海洋大学 上海 201306;2.农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;3.莱州明波水产有限公司 烟台 261418
摘要:
本研究对云纹石斑鱼(Epinephelus moara)、鞍带石斑鱼(E. lanceolatus)、云纹石斑鱼(♀)×鞍带石斑鱼(♂)的杂交种(俗称云龙石斑鱼) 3种石斑鱼肌肉的营养成分和品质进行了分析评价。结果显示,这3种石斑鱼肌肉的粗蛋白含量分别为20.60%、19.30%和20.00%,粗脂肪的含量分别为2.60%、1.60%和4.30%。3种石斑鱼的肌肉均检测出16种常见氨基酸。其中,云纹石斑鱼肌肉的氨基酸总量、必需氨基酸含量和鲜味氨基酸的含量分别为16.95%、7.11%和6.31%(湿重),鞍带石斑鱼的分别为17.46%、7.18%和6.83%,云龙石斑鱼的分别为18.56%、7.69%和7.16%。其必需氨基酸的组成比例均符合FAO/WHO标准。3种石斑鱼肌肉的支链氨基酸和芳香族氨基酸的比值(F值)分别为2.22、2.57和2.60。依据氨基酸评分(AAS)和化学评分(CS)分值,蛋氨酸为3种石斑鱼的第一限制性氨基酸,缬氨酸为第二限制性氨基酸。另外,3种石斑鱼肌肉的矿物质含量丰富,常量元素均以钾含量最高,微量元素均以锌含量最高。研究表明,3种石斑鱼均是符合人体营养需求的优质海水鱼。
关键词:  石斑鱼  肌肉  营养成分  品质评价
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Analysis of Nutrient Components and Evaluation of Nutritive Quality in Flesh of Three Species of Cultured Groupers
ZHAO Tingting1,2, ZHANG Yan2, CHEN Chao2, LI Yanlu2, ZHANG Tingting2, QIAO Ying2, ZHAI Jieming3, LI Wensheng3
1.National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306;2.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;3.Laizhou Mingbo Aquatic Co. Ltd, Yantai 261418
Abstract:
Grouper is an important global, marine economic resource. As a low-fat, high-protein edible fish, it is in high demand, and thus, its supply is not adequate to meet this demand. In order to improve the muscle quality of the cultured grouper and provide basic data for the development of compound feed, the nutritional components in the muscles of Epinephelus moara, E. lanceolatus, and E. moara (♀) × E. lanceolatus (♂) (hereinafter Yunlong) were analyzed and evaluated by routine biochemical methods. The results showed that the content of crude protein in the muscles of the three grouper species were 20.60%, 19.30%, and 20.00%, respectively, and the content of crude fat were 2.60%, 1.60%, and 4.30%. Sixteen common amino acids were detected in the muscles of the three grouper species. The content of total amino acids (TAA), essential amino acids (EAA), and delicious amino acids (DAA) in wet-weight fish flesh were respectively 16.95%, 7.11%, and 6.31% in E. moara; 17.46%, 7.18%, and 6.83% in E. lanceolatus; and 18.56%, 7.69%, and 7.16% in Yunlong. The proportions of the essential amino acids in the muscles of three grouper species are all in accordance with the FAO/WHO standard. The ratios of branched chain amino acids to aromatic amino acids (F values) in the muscles of the three grouper species were 2.22, 2.57, and 2.60, respectively. According to the amino acid score (AAS) and chemical score (CS), the first limiting amino acid of the three grouper species was methionine, and the second limiting amino acid was valine. In addition, muscles from the three group species were all rich in minerals. Potassium levels were the highest among those of all macroelements, and zinc levels were the highest among those of all trace elements. Studies have shown that these three species of groupers are high-quality marine fish with high nutritional value, which have good prospects for commercial exploitation and utilization.
Key words:  Grouper  Muscle  Nutrient component  Quality evaluation