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盐化幅度、速度及方式对凡纳滨对虾仔虾生长和存活率的影响
赵玉超1, 李玉全1, 孙振鹏1, 王淑生2, 付瑞江3, 张绍龙3
1.青岛农业大学海洋科学与工程学院 青岛 266109;2.滨州市渔业技术推广站 滨州 256616;3.滨州市北海新区海缘养殖科技有限公司 滨州 251907
摘要:
本研究测定了盐化幅度(3/d、6/d、9/d、12/d和15/d)、盐化速度(1、3、6、12和18 h/次)和盐化方式(前期盐化、中期盐化、后期盐化和间隔盐化)与凡纳滨对虾(Litopenaeus vannamei)仔虾生长发育、活力和存活率的关系。研究结果显示,不同盐化幅度、盐化速度和盐化方式均显著影响盐化标粗过程中仔虾的生长发育、活力和存活率(P<0.05)。综合考虑生长性能、苗种活力和存活率等因素,最适盐化幅度为3~6/d,在该盐化幅度范围内,仔虾存活率可达74.07%~78.83%;盐化幅度超过9/d时,仔虾存活率显著下降(P<0.05),其中,盐化幅度达到15/d时,存活率仅为43.37%。过快的盐化速度导致存活率和活力显著下降,盐化速度>1 h/次时,仔虾死亡率接近50%;随着盐化速度的放缓,仔虾生长速度加快,盐化速度为6~18 h/次时,生长速度维持稳定,日增重量为1.48~1.51 mg。在盐化方式方面,后期盐化和间隔盐化时,苗种的质量和存活率优于前期盐化和中期盐化,仔虾活力表现为间隔盐化>后期盐化>中期盐化>前期盐化。综合考虑,仔虾的最适盐化幅度为3~6/d,最佳盐化速度为6~12 h/次,后期盐化和间隔盐化更有助于仔虾保持较好活力和较高存活率。本研究通过探讨凡纳滨对虾苗种盐化标粗的最适盐化幅度、盐化速度和盐化方式,丰富了凡纳滨对虾高盐环境抗逆性研究,为凡纳滨对虾苗种的盐化标粗生产实践提供了理论支持。
关键词:  凡纳滨对虾  盐化  生长性能  存活率
DOI:
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基金项目:
Effects of High-Salinity Domestication Gradient, Speed, and Mode on Weight Gain, Activity, and Survival Rate of Litopenaeus vannamei Postlarvae
ZHAO Yuchao1, LI Yuquan1, SUN Zhenpeng1, WANG Shusheng2, FU Ruijiang3, ZHANG Shaolong3
1.Marine Science and Engineering College, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266109;2.Binzhou Fisheries Technology Extension Station, Binzhou 256616;3.Beihai New District of Binzhou Haiyuan Aquaculture Technology Co. Ltd, Binzhou 251907
Abstract:
To investigate the optimum high-salinity domestication gradient, speed, and mode of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae, a salinization experiment was designed. Salinity increased from 30 to 60. Different high-salinity domestication gradients (3/d, 6/d, 9/d, 12/d, and 15/d), speeds (1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 h/time), and modes (early salinization, medium-term salinization, later salinization, and interval salinization) were used. The weight gain, activity, and survival rate of L. vannamei postlarvae were tested during high-salinity domestication. The results showed that the different high-salinity domestication gradients, speeds, and modes had significant effects on the weight gain, activity, and survival rate of postlarvae (P<0.05). The optimal high-salinity domestication gradient was 3~6/d; the survival rate of postlarvae remained at 74.07% to 78.83% in this gradient. When the high-salinity domestication gradient exceeded 9/d, the survival rate of postlarvae decreased sharply (P<0.05), and was only 43.37% in the high-salinity domestication gradient of 15/d. In addition, the rapid high-salinity domestication speed decreased the survival rate and activity. When the domestication speed was faster than 1 h/time, the survival rate of postlarvae was reduced to nearly 50%; as the domestication speed decreased, the growth rate of postlarvae increased. When the high-salinity domestication speed was 6~18 h/time, the daily weight gain of postlarvae was stable at 1.48~1.51 mg. The later salinization and interval salinization were superior to the early salinization and medium-term salinization regarding the postlarvae activity and survival rate, the postlarvae activity was as follows: interval salinization>later salinization>medium-term salinization>early salinization. Overall, the optimal high-salinity domestication gradient was 3~6/d, the best high-salinity domestication speed was 6~12 h/time, which will help postlarvae to reach the scheduled standard and achieve the target weight gain with later salinization and interval salinization.
Key words:  Litopenaeus vannamei  High-salinity domestication  Growth performance  Survival rate