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桑沟湾楮岛大叶藻床区域菲律宾蛤仔的生态贡献
吴亚林1,2, 高亚平2,3, 吕旭宁1,2, 王晓芹1,2, 李凤雪1,2, 姜娓娓2, 王军威4, 张义涛4, 蒋增杰2,3
1.上海海洋大学水产与生命学院 上海 201306;2.农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;3.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071;4.荣成楮岛水产有限公司 荣成 264312
摘要:
桑沟湾楮岛大叶藻(Zostera marina L.)床周边存在大量的底栖菲律宾蛤仔(Ruditapes philippinarum),为摸清菲律宾蛤仔的生理活动与大叶藻的相互作用,2016年5~7月,在菲律宾蛤仔和大叶藻集中分布区,评估了菲律宾蛤仔种群资源量,现场流水法测定了菲律宾蛤仔个体水平的摄食、代谢生理,围隔实验法探讨了种群水平蛤仔与大叶藻的相互作用。结果显示,桑沟湾楮岛大叶藻床海区菲律宾蛤仔的平均生物量为(572.00±20.23) ind./m2,大(壳长为3.50~4.10 cm)、中(壳长为3.00~3.50 cm)、小(壳长为2.00~3.00 cm)规格各占9.01%、43.60%和47.38%。菲律宾蛤仔的排氨率、耗氧率、滤水率、摄食率分别为(0.44±0.15)~(1.40±0.35) μmol/(ind.·h)、(0.21±0.02)~(0.33± 0.08) mg/(ind.·h)、(0.69±0.38)~(0.83±0.66) L/(ind.·h)和(2.57±0.41)~(3.41±0.68) mg/(ind.·h),且都随体重的增加而增大。围隔实验设有3个实验组(蛤仔组、大叶藻组和大叶藻+蛤仔组),1个空白组,每组3个平行(大叶藻30茎枝左右、蛤仔15个左右),实验进行4 h。研究表明,蛤仔组、大叶藻+蛤仔组和大叶藻组间的溶氧浓度存在显著差异(P<0.05);蛤仔组与其他3组的氨氮浓度存在显著差异(P<0.05);蛤仔组、大叶藻+蛤仔组与空白组的水体颗粒物浓度存在显著差异(P<0.05),大叶藻组与空白组差异不显著(P>0.05)。桑沟湾楮岛海区菲律宾蛤仔养殖面积约为0.5 km2,蛤仔每天可以过滤46 t海水中的悬浮颗粒物,并为大叶藻提供0.4 t的氨氮。本研究为深入揭示大叶藻海区菲律宾蛤仔的生态作用提供了基础数据。
关键词:  大叶藻  菲律宾蛤仔  摄食生理  代谢生理  桑沟湾
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Ecological Contribution of Ruditapes philippinarum in the Seagrass Meadow of Sanggou Bay
WU Yalin1,2, GAO Yaping2,3, LÜ Xuning1,2, WANG Xiaoqin1,2, LI Fengxue1,2, JIANG Weiwei2, WANG Junwei4, ZHANG Yitao4, JIANG Zengjie2,3
1.College of Fisheries and Life Science, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306;2.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;3.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266071;4.Rongcheng Chudao Aquaculture Corporation, Rongcheng 264312
Abstract:
Ruditapes philippinarum is abundant around the seagrass meadow in Chudao, Sanggou Bay. To determine the interactions between R. philippinarum and Zostera marina L., the amount of R. philippinarum was evaluated in the seagrass meadow at Chudao from May to July, 2016. The feeding and metabolic physiology of R. philippinarum were determined based on an individual experiment with flowing water from the field. The interactions between R. philippinarum and Z. marina were investigated in an enclosure experiment in the field. The results showed that the biomass of R. philippinarum was (572.00±20.23) ind./m2, which included 9.01% large (shell length 3.50~4.10 cm), 43.60% medium (shell length 3.00~3.50 cm), and 47.38% small (shell length 2.00~3.00 cm) clams. The ammonia nitrogen excretion, oxygen consumption, clearance rate, and feeding rate were (0.44±0.15) to (1.40± 0.35) μmol/(ind.·h), (0.21±0.02) to (0.33±0.08) mg/(ind.·h), (0.69±0.38) to (0.83±0.66) L/(ind.·h), and (2.57±0.41) to (3.41±0.68) mg/(ind.·h), respectively. These parameters all increased with increasing body weight of the clams. There were four groups (R. philippinarum, Z. marina, Z. marina+R. philippinarum, and control) with three replicates each in the enclosure experiment, which was run for 4 h. The results revealed significant differences in dissolved oxygen concentration among the R. philippinarum, Z. marina+R. philippinarum, and Z. marina groups (P<0.05). The ammonia nitrogen concentration in the R. philippinarum group was significantly higher than that in the other three groups (P<0.05). Total particles in the R. philippinarum and Z. marina+R. philippinarum groups were significantly lower than those in the control (P<0.05), while no significant difference was found between the Z. marina group and the control (P>0.05). The area of R. philippinarum is about 0.5 km2 around Chudao in Sanggou Bay, approximately filter 46 t of suspended particulates and provide 0.4 t of ammonia nitrogen to the Z. marina meadow by the clam each day. The present findings provides basic data for further revealing the ecological roles of R. philippinarum in Z. marina meadow areas.
Key words:  Zostera marina L.  Ruditapes philippinarum  Feeding physiology  Metabolic physiology  Sanggou Bay