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环境DNA(eDNA)技术在水生生态系统中的应用研究进展
单秀娟,李 苗,王伟继
1.农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071;3.上海海洋大学海洋科学学院 上海 201306
摘要:
环境DNA(Environmental DNA, eDNA)是指从皮肤、黏液、唾液、精子、分泌物、卵、粪便、尿液、血液、根、叶、果实、花粉和腐烂体等释放出来的、普遍存在的、游离的DNA分子。环境DNA技术是指从环境样品(土壤、沉积物和水体等)中直接提取DNA片段后利用测序技术进行定性或定量分析的方法。近年来随着分子生物学的发展,环境DNA技术已经成为一种新的水生生物调查方法,其主要被用来进行生物入侵的防治、濒危物种的保护、生物多样性的评价以及生物量的评估等。作者综述了环境DNA技术的发展历程、操作流程、在水生生态系统中的应用、优势以及存在的问题,同时对环境DNA在生态学领域中的应用前景进行了展望。
关键词:  环境DNA  物种监测  生物多样性  生物量评估
DOI:
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基金项目:
Application of Environmental DNA Technology in Aquatic Ecosystem
SHAN Xiujuan1,2,3, LI Miao1,2,4, WANG Weiji1,2,3
1.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture;2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Resources and Eco-Environment, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;3.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071;4.College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
Abstract:
An accurate grasp of species distribution is a requirement for biodiversity studies, and understanding species’ biomass is crucial to assessing ecosystem productivity and material cycles. Traditional bioassays and biomass assessments are based on data from trawl surveys. However, trawl surveys often do not provide a true reflection of species distribution and resource status because of differences in the living habits and resource status of different species. To accurately grasp species distribution and resource status, it is imperative to identify cost-effective aquatic organism survey methods to provide technical support for the research and protection of aquatic ecosystem biological diversity. In recent years, the rapid development of molecular biology research has transformed species identification methods from traditional morphological classifications to molecular biology-based techniques, especially the development and application of environmental DNA technology. Environmental DNA is a ubiquitous free radical released from the skin, mucus, saliva, sperm, secretions, eggs, feces, urine, blood, roots, leaves, fruits, pollen, and decaying bodies of DNA molecules. Environmental DNA technology refers to the method of qualitatively or quantitatively analyzing DNA fragments directly from environmental samples (such as soils, sediments, and water bodies) using sequencing techniques. Environmental DNA technology has become a novel method of aquatic organism survey, which is mainly used in processes such as the prevention and control of biological invasion, protection of endangered species, and evaluation of biodiversity and biomass. Here, we review the development of environmental DNA technology, the operational flow, and its application in aquatic ecosystems, as well as the advantages and existing problems. In addition, we project the prospect of environmental DNA in the field of ecology. We hope that this review will provide novel ideas and methods for the research and protection of the biological diversity of aquatic ecosystems to ensure that aquatic resources can be fully utilized.
Key words:  Environmental DNA  Species monitoring  Biodiversity  Biomass assessment