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渤海鱼类的食物关系
张 波
1.农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071
摘要:
本研究通过对2010~2011年渤海大面调查所获得的渔获物进行胃含物分析,了解当前渤海鱼类的食物关系及其变化。结果显示,渤海生态系统的27种鱼类有12种低营养级鱼类、12种中营养级鱼类和3种高营养级鱼类,包括了杂食性鱼类、浮游动物食性鱼类、底栖动物食性鱼类、混合动物食性鱼类和鱼食性鱼类,各鱼种营养级较20世纪90年代变化不大。3种高营养级鱼类均为鱼食性鱼类,饵料生境宽度值均很低,属于狭食性鱼类;矛尾虾虎鱼(Chaeturichthys stigmatias)和小黄鱼(Pseudosciaena polyactis)是渤海饵料生境宽度最大的2种鱼,同时也是当前渤海生态系统食物网中最重要的饵料种类,其广食性有利于食物网各营养层次的物质、能量流动。当前渤海食物网中浮游食物链削弱,主要食物链转变为“植物、有机碎屑→鼓虾→鱼类”和“底栖动物→虾虎鱼、小黄鱼→大型经济鱼类”。
关键词:  渤海  鱼类  食物组成  营养级  食物链
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Feeding Ecology of Fishes in the Bohai Sea
ZHANG Bo1,2,3
1.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture;2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Resources and Eco-Environment, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;3.2. Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes,Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071
Abstract:
Studies of the food web are an important inlet to carry out integrative research on sustainable marine ecosystems. These investigations further highlight the main food chain in the study of end-to-end food webs, and the research is conducted at each trophic level (TL). Under multiple pressures of human activities and climatic change, coastal sea ecosystems have undergone significant changes. Therefore, it is very important to clarify the food contact and its present variation in the Bohai Sea ecosystem. In this study, we analyzed 27 different fish species with 10156 stomachs, collected from bottom trawl surveys during 2010~2011 in the Bohai Sea. The percentage frequencies of occurrence, number, and weight of different prey categories were calculated to describe the diet composition. The Shannon–Wiener diversity index was used to evaluate the dietary breadth of each fish. The TL of each fish was calculated, and then the fish were classified as low, medium, and high TL (≤3.8, 3.9~4.4, and ≥4.5, respectively). The results showed that the 27 fish species, including 12 low TL species (Clupanodon punctatus, Sardinella zunasi, Enedrias fangi, Thrissa kammalensis, Callionymus beniteguri, Cynoglossus joyneri, Cynoglossus lighti, Setipinna taty, Enchelyopus elongates, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Trichiurus muticus, and Chaeturichthys hexanema), 12 medium TL species (Scomberomorus niphonius, Pseudosciaena polyactis, Hexagrammos otakii, Johnius belangerii, Sebastiscus marmoratus, Sebastodes fuscescens, Liparis tanakae, Platycephalus indicus, Hemitripterus villosus, Argyrosomus argentatus, Chelidonichthys kumu, and Lateolabrax japonicus) and three high TL species (Saurida elongate, Lophius litulon, and Sphyraena pinguis), were classified into omnivores, zooplanktivores, benthivores, mixed animal predators, and piscivores. Compared to that in the 1990s, the TL of each fish has not changed much. Three kinds of high TL fish belonged to the piscivores fish category, and their dietary breadth was very low, and so they were stenophagous fish. Finespot goby and small yellow croaker had the highest dietary breadth and were the most important prey species in the food web of the Bohai Sea ecosystem; therefore, their euryphage was beneficial to the material and energy flow of each trophic hierarchy in the food web. Presently, the food chain “zooplankton–anchovy–large piscivores fish” was basically destroyed, and so, the main food chains changed to “plants, organic detritus–Alpheidae– fishes” and “benthic animals–goby fish, small yellow croaker–large commercial fishes” in the food web of the Bohai Sea. The weakening of the pelagic food chain is not conducive to the carbon sink of the marine ecosystem and the material and energy flow of the food web. Therefore, studies of the end-to-end food web and the main food chain of the Bohai Sea should change accordingly.
Key words:  Bohai Sea  Fish  Food composition  Trophic level  Food chain