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南极磷虾(Euphausia superba)起捕后蛋白自溶进程及其影响因素
曹荣1,2, 余弈珂3, 赵玲1, 孙慧慧1, 刘淇1
1.中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋药物与生物制品功能实验室 青岛 266071;3.辽渔集团有限公司 大连 116113
摘要:
为了有效保持南极磷虾(Euphausia superba)原料品质,实现其高质化利用,本研究选取冷冻南极磷虾作为研究对象,在实验室条件下以非蛋白氮(NPN)含量、三氯乙酸(TCA)可溶性蛋白含量与氨基酸态氮含量为指标,证实了南极磷虾NPN含量的变化可以表征蛋白自溶进程,且可以实现海上处理样品、运至陆地实验室后进行分析的目的。在此基础上,选取完整的及挤压破损的新鲜南极磷虾作为研究对象,以0~8 h南极磷虾样品的NPN为指标,研究了南极磷虾起捕后蛋白自溶进程以及挤压破损对该过程的影响。结果显示,南极磷虾起捕死亡后的1 h内,NPN显著变化(P>0.05),1 h后NPN迅速增加,挤压破损加速了南极磷虾的自溶进程,因此,目前的拖网作业方式有待改进。
关键词:  南极磷虾  蛋白质  自溶  非蛋白氮
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Study on the Protein Autolysis Process of Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) and Its Influencing Factors
CAO Rong1,2, YU Yike3, ZHAO Ling1, SUN Huihui1, LIU Qi1
1.Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;2.Laboratory for Marine Drugs and Bioproducts, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao 266071;3.Liaoyu Group Co. Ltd, Dalian 116113
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to elucidate protein autolysis in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) after capture on fishing vessels and the maintenance of product quality. Under laboratory conditions, frozen Antarctic krill was used to verify the correlation between non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content and the degree of protein autolysis. The stability of NPN content during 90-days storage at –20℃ was also examined. Fresh Antarctic krill, complete in form or broken because of compression during trawling of the Antarctic krill fishing vessel were selected. The NPN content of Antarctic krill samples at different storage times were measured. The results showed that the NPN content of Antarctic krill had a good correlation with protein autolysis, and there were no significant changes in the NPN content during the 90-day of storage. Therefore, NPN was suitable for evaluating changes in the quality of Antarctic krill after capture. There was no significant change in NPN content during the first hour after the death of the captured Antarctic krill. However, the NPN content increased rapidly afterwards. Antarctic krill should be frozen or processed as soon as possible after capture. Compression during trawling damaged Antarctic krill and accelerated protein autolysis. Thus, the method of trawling used during Antarctic krill fishing requires improvement.
Key words:  Euphausia superba  Protein  Autolysis  Non-protein nitrogen