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渤海夏季甲壳类群落结构的年际变化
吴 强1,2, 李忠义1,2, 王 俊1,2, 单秀娟1,2, 金显仕1,2
1.农业部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 青岛 266071;2.青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071
摘要:
基于2009~2010年及2012~2015年夏季(8月)进行的底拖网调查资料,研究了渤海甲壳类群落结构的年际变化。结果显示:(1)调查共捕获甲壳类33种,隶属于2目21科29属,其中虾类16种,蟹类16种,虾蛄1种;(2)甲壳类生态优势种类组成随年份变化,口虾蛄在每个年份均为绝对优势种;(3) 2009~2013年,渤海甲壳类的物种数目、生物量和个体数密度均持续下降,2014~2015年逐步恢复;(4)聚类分析(CLUSTER)和多维标度分析(MDS)将6个调查年分为4个群组,单因子相似性分析(ANOSIM)表明群组间的群落结构呈显著性差异(P<0.05),相似性百分比分析(SIMPER)表明口虾蛄、葛氏长臂虾和海蜇虾对群组区分的贡献率最高;(5)群落更替指数和迁移指数显示,渤海甲壳类群落的稳定性以2010年最好、2013年最差。总体来看,2011年蓬莱19-3平台溢油后的第3~4年,即2014~2015年渤海的甲壳类群落已逐渐恢复。
关键词:  甲壳类  群落结构  稳定性  年际变化  渤海
DOI:
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Inter-Annual Variation in the Community Structure of Crustaceans in the Bohai Sea During Summer
WU Qiang1,2, LI Zhongyi1,2, WANG Jun1,2, SHAN Xiujuan1,2, JIN Xianshi1,2
1.Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Resources and Eco-Environment, Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao 266071;2.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266071
Abstract:
The Penglai 19-3 oil spill in 2011 is considered as one of the most serious oil spill incidents in the Bohai Sea. However, the effect of the oil spill on benthic crustaceans is unclear. In this study, we analyzed the inter-annual variation in the community structure of crustaceans in the Bohai Sea based on the survey data collected by bottom trawls in summer (August) from 2009 to 2015. A total of 33 benthic crustacean species belonging to 2 orders, 21 families, and 29 genera were captured, which included 16 shrimp species, 16 crab species, and 1 stomatopod. The ecologically dominant species changed every year. However, Oratosquilla oratoria was the most dominant species every year from 2009 to 2015. Both the number of crustacean species and the biomass or individual yields declined from 2009 to 2013, and then increased from 2014 to 2015, synchronously. Cluster analysis (CLUSTER) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis indicated that the crustacean community during 2009 to 2015 can be divided into 4 groups. The single factor analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) indicated that the difference in the community structure of crustaceans was significant (P<0.05). The similarity analysis of percentage (SIMPER) indicated that O. oratoria, Palaemon gravieri, and Latreutes anoplonyx contributed maximum to the intergroup similarity. The community alternating and community migration indices indicated that the stability of the crustacean community was the best in 2010 and the worst in 2013. The results indicate that the benthic crustacean community in the Bohai Sea recovered gradually during 2014 to 2015, three to four years after the Penglai 19-3 oil spill incident.
Key words:  Crustaceans  Community structure  Stability  Inter-annual variation  Bohai Sea