文章摘要
饶远,向枭,黄先智,段彪.蚕粉替代鱼粉对加州鲈幼鱼生长、饲料利用及体成分的影响.渔业科学进展,2019,40(4):31-38
蚕粉替代鱼粉对加州鲈幼鱼生长、饲料利用及体成分的影响
Effects of Replacement of Fish Meal with Silkworm Powder on Growth Performance, Feed Intake, and Body Composition of Juvenile Black Bass (Micropterus salmonides)
投稿时间:2018-05-22  修订日期:2018-07-22
DOI:
中文关键词: 加州鲈  蚕粉  生长性能  体成分
英文关键词: Black bass (Micropterus salmonides)  Silkworm powder  Growth performance  Body composition
基金项目:公益性行业科研专项(201303053)和现代农业产业技术体系(CARS-18)共同资助
作者单位
饶远 西南大学动物科学学院 重庆 402460 
向枭 西南大学动物科学学院 重庆 402460 
黄先智 家蚕基因组生物学国家重点实验室 重庆 400716 
段彪 西南大学动物科学学院 重庆 402460 
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中文摘要:
      本研究评价了蚕粉对加州鲈(Micropterus salmonides)幼鱼生长、饲料利用率和体成分的影响。选用初始均体重为(3.13±0.04) g的加州鲈540尾,随机分成6个实验组,每组3个重复,每个重复30尾实验鱼,分别以蚕粉替代0(对照组)、10%、20%、30%、40%和50%的鱼粉设计出6种等氮、等能的饲料配方,按照配方配制实验饲料。由于后期养殖气温下降,不适合继续进行实验,本养殖时间为45 d。结果显示,加州鲈的增重率(WGR)、特定生长率(SGR)及蛋白质效率(PER)均随蚕粉替代水平的升高呈先上升后下降的变化趋势,且其WGR、SGR和PER均在蚕粉替代水平为30%时达到最大(分别为227.87%、1.98%/d和164.55%)(P<0.05);饲料系数(FCR)则随蚕粉替代水平的升高呈先降后升的变化趋势,且在蚕粉替代水平为30%时达到最低(为 1.43)(P<0.05);肥满度(CF)、肝体比(HSI)、脏体比(VSI)则随蚕粉替代水平的升高而呈先上升后下降并趋于稳定的趋势(P<0.05);实验期间各组实验鱼的成活率(SR)差异不显著(P>0.05)。通过二次回归分析可知,加州鲈幼鱼WGR、SGR、FCR及PER最优时饲料的蚕粉替代比例分别为19.90%、22.00%、18.11%和17.90%;加州鲈全鱼粗脂肪含量随蚕粉替代水平的升高呈先降低后升高的变化趋势(P<0.05),粗蛋白含量随蚕粉替代水平的升高无明显变化(P>0.05),水分除蚕粉替代水平为10%和40%组差异显著外(P<0.05),其余各实验组差异不显著(P>0.05),蚕粉替代水平大于20%时,全鱼灰分显著降低(P<0.05)。在本实验条件下,综合考虑实验鱼的生长指标、饲料利用和体成分,饲料中蚕粉适宜的替代水平为17.90%~22.00%。
英文摘要:
      This experiment evaluated the effects of fish meal (FM) replacement by silkworm powder (SP) on the growth performance and body composition of juvenile black bass (Micropterus salmonides). Six isonitrogenous and isoenergic diets were formulated by the replacement of 0 (control), 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% FM with SP. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of 30 juvenile black bass (total, 540 fish) with an initial body weight of (3.13±0.04) g. Owing to the decline in the temperature, the breeding cycle was 45 days. The results show that weight growth rate (WGR), special growth rate (SGR), and the protein efficiency ratio (PER) of black bass increased first and then decreased as along with the replacement rate increased, and reached maximum when replacement level was 30%, with increases of 227.87%, 1.98%/day, and 164.55%, respectively (P<0.05). The feed conversion rate (FCR) decreased first, then increased as along with the replacement rate increased, and reached a minimum when replacement level was 30%, with a decrease of 1.43 (P<0.05). The condition factor (CF), hepatopancreas somatic index (HSI), and viscera somatic index (VSI) increased first, then decreased as the replacement rate increased, and finally tended towards stability (P<0.05). The survival rate (SR) of the six groups of black bass was not significantly different (P>0.05). Through quadric regression analysis, when WGR, SGR, FCR, and PER reached the optimum values, the replacement rates were 19.90%, 22.00%, 18.11%, and 17.90%, respectively. The content of crude lipid decreased first and then increased as the replacement rate increased (P<0.05); whole body crude protein did not change significantly as the replacement rate increased (P>0.05); moisture content in the whole body was not significantly different in any group (P>0.05) except the 10% and 40% groups (P<0.05); and the ash content of the whole fish decreased significantly when the replacement rates were above 20% (P<0.05). Therefore, under the experimental conditions, the measurement of the growth performance and body composition of black bass indicated that the optimum substitution rate of SP with FM was between 17.90% and 22.00%.
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