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草鱼死后常温贮藏过程中的品质变化
王红丽, 施文正, 邱伟强, 王锡昌
上海海洋大学食品学院 国家淡水水产品加工技术研发分中心(上海) 上海 201306
摘要:
为了研究草鱼死后常温贮藏过程中的品质变化,以草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)背肉为研究对象,测定了草鱼死后30 h内质构、pH、乳酸、游离氨基酸、ATP及其关联化合物等指标的变化。结果显示,草鱼肉的硬度和咀嚼性在死后23 h时达到最大值,弹性、内聚性及回复性均随时间的延长而降低。pH呈先降低后升高的趋势,在23 h达到最大值。乳酸含量则先增加后减少。在整个贮藏过程中,鲜甜味游离氨基酸的总含量逐渐减少,而苦味游离氨基酸的总含量则逐渐增加。ATP含量在草鱼死后10 h内显著增加,具有鲜味的IMP含量则迅速减少,呈苦味的HxR和Hx含量逐渐增加。在整个贮藏过程中,K值一直增加。K值的变化情况表明,草鱼死后常温贮藏10 h内可保持较高鲜度,27 h时,K值达到68.99%,表明鱼肉已经腐败。研究表明,草鱼死后室温贮藏时应在10 h内尽快加工。
关键词:  草鱼  死后变化  游离氨基酸  ATP及其关联化合物  K值
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Quality Changes of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) in the Process of Postmortem Stored at Room Temperature
WANG Hongli, SHI Wenzheng, QIU Weiqiang, WANG Xichang
College of Food Science and Technology, National R&D Branch Center for Freshwater Aquatic Products Processing Technology (Shanghai), Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
Abstract:
In order to study the quality changes of grass carp during postmortem at room temperature (25℃), the changes in texture, pH, lactic acid, free amino acids, and ATP-related compounds in the dorsal meat of grass carp were measured using texture analyzer, pH meter, lactic acid kit, automatic amino acid analyzer, and high-performance liquid chromatography method in the postmortem process within 30 h. The results showed that hardness and chewiness of the grass carp reached its maximum at 23 h and then rapidly decreased, while springiness, cohesiveness, and resilience of grass carp decreased with the extension of storage time. pH showed a trend of decreasing first and then increasing, and it reached its maximum at 23 h. The content of lactic acid increased initially and then decreased, which reached its minimum value at 23 h. The total amount of fresh sweet amino acids gradually decreased during the postmortem process, while bitter amino acids were just the opposite, which increased during the postmortem process. The content of ATP increased significantly within 10 h, while the content of IMP with umami taste decreased rapidly1. Furthermore, the content of HxR and Hx with bitter taste increased gradually during the storage process. The K value increased during the postmortem process. The change in K value indicated that grass carp could maintain high freshness after storage for 10 h at room temperature, and it reached 68.99% at 27 h, which showed that the fish had spoiled at that time. Therefore, it should be processed as soon as possible, ideally within 10 hours after the death of grass carp at room temperature. This study will enrich the basic theory of postmortem variation of fish and provide support for the quality change of aquatic products.
Key words:  Ctenopharyngodon idellus  Postmortem  Free amino acids  ATP-related compounds  K-value