文章摘要
谭杰,李凤辉,陈四清,马添翼,陈爱华,葛建龙,孙慧玲,王亮.不同培育水温和饲料对刺参人工促熟效果的影响.渔业科学进展,2020,41(1):96-103
不同培育水温和饲料对刺参人工促熟效果的影响
Effect of temperature and diet on the reproductive condition of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus broodstock
投稿时间:2018-12-12  修订日期:2019-02-28
DOI:
中文关键词: 刺参  促熟  性腺发育  水温  饲料
英文关键词: Apostichopus japonicus  Conditioning  Gonad development  Temperature  Diet
基金项目:
作者单位
谭杰 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
李凤辉 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 青岛 266071 
陈四清 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
马添翼 威海市文登区海洋与渔业局 威海 264400 
陈爱华 山东省乳山市水产技术推广站 威海 264500 
葛建龙 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
孙慧玲 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 青岛 266071 
王亮 烟台市海洋经济研究院 烟台 264003 
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中文摘要:
      本文采用单因素分析方法,研究了不同培育水温和饲料对刺参(Apostichopus japonicus)人工促熟效果的影响。在实验条件下,分别设置2种升温模式(水温从5℃逐渐升至12℃后恒温培育,从5℃逐渐升至15℃后恒温培育)和3种不同饲料[鼠尾藻(Sargassum thunbergii)粉组:50%鼠尾藻粉+50%海泥;海带(Laminaria japonica)粉组:50%海带粉+50%海泥;混合藻粉组:25%鼠尾藻粉+25%海带粉+50%海泥]。实验过程中,定期测量刺参体壁粗成分;实验结束后,分析雌性刺参性腺粗成分,同时检测雌参的繁殖力指标和子代质量指标。结果显示,在15℃水温培育的雌参性腺中粗蛋白和粗脂肪含量高于在12℃水温培育的雌参,分别为(62.54±1.78)%和(10.83±1.04)%。15℃水温下培育的雌参性腺指数、排放率和平均排卵量均高于12℃水温下培育的雌参,分别为(6.87±2.02)%、(16.00±2.31)%和(312.0±59.3)×104粒。饲料实验中,鼠尾藻粉和混合藻粉组雌参性腺中的粗蛋白含量显著高于海带粉组(P<0.05),为(60.82±0.52)%和(59.18±1.26)%,海带粉组雌参性腺中粗脂肪含量为(8.82±1.55)%,高于鼠尾藻粉和混合藻粉组。3个饲料实验组的雌参在繁殖力指标上差异不显著,但混合藻粉组的雌参繁殖力指标最高。混合藻粉组受精卵孵化率和早期幼体体长均显著高于海带粉组。研究表明,采用15℃水温培育的雌参繁殖力高于12℃水温培育的雌参,但二者产生的子代质量差异不显著;在实验范围内,采用不同饲料培育的雌参繁殖力指标没有显著差异,但混合藻粉组亲参所产子代质量高于鼠尾藻粉组和海带粉组。
英文摘要:
      The effects of two factors (temperature and diet) on the gonadal development and quality of the resulting offspring of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus) were examined in this study. Two temperatures (12℃ and 15℃) and three diets (50% Sargassum thunbergii Kuntze powder + 50% sea mud, 50% Laminaria japonica powder + 50% sea mud, and 25% S. thunbergii Kuntze powder + 25% L. japonica powder + 50% sea mud) were tested through single factor experiments. In addition, changes in the biochemical composition of the body wall during conditioning and biochemical composition of the female gonad after conditioning in different treatments were also quantified. Sea cucumbers were maintained in seawater, which was changed daily and provided with aeration, and were fed at a daily ration equivalent to 5%~10% of their dry biomass. Three replicate tanks were assayed for each treatment. Gonad index and spawning rate of female animals, egg diameter, fertilization rate of eggs, hatching rate of larvae, and body length of early auricularia were also evaluated. The results of the temperature treatments revealed that spawning rate, gonad index, and fecundity of females were significantly affected by temperature, and significantly higher at 15℃ than that at 12℃ (P<0.05). In the diet treatments, there were no significant differences in gonad index, spawning rate, and fecundity of females among the three groups; however, the mixed algae powder group showed the highest values. Hatching rate of embryos and body length of early larvae in the mixed algae powder group were significantly greater than that in the L. japonica powder group. The results indicated that egg quality was the best in a broodstock supplied with mixed macroalgae powder and sea mud. Biochemical analysis of the body wall revealed that carbohydrate levels in the A. japonicus body wall declined during conditioning, supporting the theory that carbohydrates are mobilized to provide energy or precursors for lipid or protein synthesis in the gonad.
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