文章摘要
单秀娟,胡芷君,邵长伟,唐政.捕捞诱导鱼类生物学特征进化研究进展.渔业科学进展,2020,41(3):165-175
捕捞诱导鱼类生物学特征进化研究进展
Progress in the Study of Fishing-Induced Evolution of Fish Biological Characteristics
投稿时间:2019-02-21  修订日期:2019-04-10
DOI:
中文关键词: 鱼类  捕捞诱导进化  渔业资源  生物学特征  进化影响评估
英文关键词: Fish  FIE  Fisheries resource  Biological characteristics  Evolutionary impact assessment
基金项目:
作者单位
单秀娟 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
胡芷君 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 青岛 266071上海海洋大学海洋科学学院 上海 201306 
邵长伟 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 青岛 266071 
唐政 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 青岛 266071上海海洋大学海洋科学学院 上海 201306 
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中文摘要:
      随着捕捞强度加大,渔业生物为了应对捕捞压力、维持种族繁衍,逐渐产生适应性进化,这一过程称为捕捞诱导进化(Fishing-induced evolution, FIE),通常表现为渔业生物个体变小、性成熟提前,个体对捕捞的敏感性增强,进一步导致渔业种群结构简单、生态系统稳定性下降和渔业经济效益降低。认知捕捞诱导的渔业生物适应性进化,掌握捕捞对渔业种群的作用机制,有利于制定科学合理的渔业资源养护与管理策略。虽然FIE方面已进行了大量研究,但FIE在生理、生态及基因层面上对渔业生物的具体影响过程尚未明确,尤其是在气候变化、多物种相互作用等的动态环境中,FIE的作用方式更为复杂。作者综述了鱼类FIE的主要研究方法,总结了捕捞对大个体的选择性在鱼类生长、性成熟和行为方面的影响,并分析了这种影响对渔业种群恢复与管理产生的效应,以及今后需要解决的关键科学问题,旨在为FIE的进一步深入研究和渔业资源的科学管理提供帮助。
英文摘要:
      With the increase of fishing intensity, fish gradually evolve to adapt in response to fishing pressures to maintain the reproduction of the population. This process is called fishing-induced evolution (FIE). Nowadays, many fish in the world have evolved these biological characteristics. For example, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), small yellow croaker (Larimichthys polyactis) and other fish became smaller size and earlier mature. These lead to further the simplification of fish population structure, the decline of ecosystem stability and the reduction of fishing economic benefits, finally FIE seriously affects the sustainable development of fish resources in many countries. Therefore, it is essential to recognize the fishing-induced adaptive evolution and grasp the mechanism of fishing effects on fish resources, in order to formulate a scientific and rational strategy for recovery and management of fishing resources. Although FIE has caused wide concerns, the mechanisms underlying the impact of fishing on physiological, ecological and genetic characteristics of fish are not clear, especially in the dynamic environment of climate change and multi-species interactions. The role of FIE is more complex due to a number of influencing factors and the complex evolutionary process. The existing studies mainly focus on fishing-induced changes in fish biological traits, computer-simulated population resilience and fish resource management strategies, but rarely on the mechanisms of FIE. Here, we reviewed the main research methods of fish FIE including methods of field ecology, experimental ecology, numerical simulation, and genetics. We summarized the related research results that fishing affects fish body length, sexual maturity, behavior and other factors, by selecting the larger individuals caught by the most important kind of fishing, bottom trawling, and analyzed the effects on the fish population recovery and management of fish stocks. Finally, we concluded that the key scientific problems to be solved, in order to provide help for further FIE research and scientific management of fish resources.
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