文章摘要
黎恒基,徐超,苏泽亮,张关荣,麻永财,郑钧,安文强,陈宇航,李远友.卵形鲳鲹配合饲料中酶解鱼浆蛋白和陆生复合蛋白替代鱼粉的研究.渔业科学进展,2022,43(5):205-216
卵形鲳鲹配合饲料中酶解鱼浆蛋白和陆生复合蛋白替代鱼粉的研究
Replacing fishmeal with fish protein hydrolysate and terrestrial complex protein in the compound feed of Trachinotus ovatus
投稿时间:2021-06-11  修订日期:2021-07-17
DOI:
中文关键词: 卵形鲳鲹  鱼粉替代  酶解鱼浆  生长性能  抗氧化指标
英文关键词: Trachinotus ovatus  Fish meal replacement  Fish protein hydrolysate  Growth performance  Antioxidant enzyme activity
基金项目:
作者单位
黎恒基 华南农业大学海洋学院 广东 广州 510642广东德宁水产科技有限公司 广东 佛山 528300 
徐超 华南农业大学海洋学院 广东 广州 510642 
苏泽亮 华南农业大学海洋学院 广东 广州 510642 
张关荣 华南农业大学海洋学院 广东 广州 510642 
麻永财 华南农业大学海洋学院 广东 广州 510642 
郑钧 华南农业大学海洋学院 广东 广州 510642 
安文强 华南农业大学海洋学院 广东 广州 510642 
陈宇航 广东德宁水产科技有限公司 广东 佛山 528300 
李远友 华南农业大学海洋学院 广东 广州 510642 
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中文摘要:
      为了评估卵形鲳鲹(Trachinotus ovatus)配合饲料中酶解鱼浆蛋白和陆生复合蛋白替代鱼粉的可行性,本研究设计了4种等蛋(42%)等脂(12%)配合饲料(D1~D4),其中,D1(对照组)含30%鱼粉,D2~D4(处理组)都含14%陆生复合蛋白且还分别含有16%、11%、6%鱼粉和0、5%、10%酶解鱼浆蛋白;各处理组都补充蛋氨酸和赖氨酸。将360尾初始体重为(7.28±0.10) g的卵形鲳鲹幼鱼随机分配到12个海上网箱中,每个网箱30尾鱼,每种饲料设3个网箱。将鱼以上述4种饲料饲养62 d后,测定其生长性能、体组成、血清生化指标、肠道消化酶活性与组织抗氧化指标。结果显示,各实验组鱼的增重率(WGR)、特定生长率(SGR)、蛋白质效率(PER)、饲料系数(FC)、胃蛋白酶(PEP)、脂肪酶(LPS)和淀粉酶(AMS)活性均无显著差异(P>0.05)。D3和D4组全鱼粗蛋白含量显著高于D1和D2组,D4组鱼肌肉脂肪含量显著低于D1~D3组(P<0.05);D2~D4组鱼血清谷草转氨酶(AST)及D2和D3组鱼谷丙转氨酶(ALT)活性都显著低于D1组(P<0.05),D1和D4组血清总蛋白(TP)和球蛋白(GLO)水平显著高于D2和D3组(P<0.05);D2~D4组肝脏过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性、总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)和肌肉超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性显著高于D1组(P<0.05),且肝脏丙二醛(MDA)含量低于D1组(P<0.05)。研究表明,含6%鱼粉的D4组鱼的生长性能与30%鱼粉D1组无差异,且全鱼蛋白含量及肝脏和肌肉抗氧化能力显著提高,说明14%陆生复合蛋白配合10%酶解鱼浆蛋白可有效替代卵形鲳鲹饲料中80%鱼粉,使饲料鱼粉使用量低至6%。本研究是首次探讨酶解鱼浆蛋白在卵形鲳鲹配合饲料中应用的可行性,结果可为研发高效低成本配合饲料提供参考依据。
英文摘要:
      Golden pompano Trachinotus ovatus is one of the most commercially important carnivorous marine species cultured in China. In recent years, the large-scale development of the aquaculture industry of T. ovatus has been rapid because of its fast growth rate and high flesh quality, and annual output has exceeded 100 000 tons. Currently, commercial formula feed for this fish still contains over 20%~30% of fishmeal (FM), the use of which precludes a sustainable aquaculture industry. As an alternative protein source, terrestrial compound proteins, which are a combination of several easily available and relatively low-priced terrestrial animal proteins and enzymatic hydrolysis or fermentation of terrestrial plant protein in a certain proportion, can alleviate the amino acid imbalance caused by a single alternative source. Terrestrial compound proteins are known to reduce the use of FM in marine carnivorous fish diets. In addition, fish protein hydrolysate is a new protein source that is processed from fish catches. In contrast to fish meal, it has an essential enzymatic hydrolysis step in the production process, so it contains more oligopeptides and free amino acids, which has been widely concerned in the industry. However, there are no reports on the application of fish protein hydrolysate in the feed of golden pompano. In order to decrease the use of FM in T. ovatus diets and evaluate the feasibility of substitution by terrestrial compound proteins and fish protein hydrolysate, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of replacing FM with compound protein and fish protein hydrolysate on growth performance, serum biochemical indexes, digestive enzyme activity, and tissue antioxidant capacity of T. ovatus. Four diets containing 42% crude protein and 12% crude fat were formulated, including D1 (control group), containing 30% fish meal; D2~D4 containing 14% terrestrial compound protein, 16%, 11%, and 6% fish meal, and 0%, 5%, and 10% fish protein hydrolysate, respectively. Methionine and lysine were added to the D2~D4 groups. T. ovatus juveniles (approximately 4 g mean initial weight) were bought from a local fish farm and then maintained for 2 months in two sea cages (2.0 m × 2.0 m × 2.0 m) at the coast near Nanao Marine Biology Station of Shantou University. A total of 360 fish (average body weight: [(7.28±0.10)g] were randomly distributed into 12 cages (1.0 m × 1.0 m × 1.5 m) and fed one of the four diets for 62 d. During the 62-d feeding trial, fish were fed to apparent satiation twice daily at 6:00 and 17:00, and the seawater temperature was 26.9℃~33.3℃, salinity was 27~33. The dead fish were collected over time and the day of death recorded. There were no significant differences in weight gain rate, specific growth rate, protein efficiency rate, feed conversion, feed rate, hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, and condition factor, as well as pepsin, lipase, and amylase activity among all treatment groups (P>0.05). The whole-body protein content of groups D3 and D4 was significantly higher than those of groups D1 and D2 (P<0.05), and muscle fat content of groups D1~D3 was significantly higher than that of group D4 (P<0.05). The activity rate of aspartate aminotransferase in groups D2~D4 and alanine aminotransferase in groups D2 and D3 were significantly lower than those in group D1 (P<0.05). Total protein and globulin levels of groups D1 and D4 were significantly higher than those of groups D2 and D3 (P<0.05). Liver catalase activity, total antioxidant capacity, and muscle superoxide dismutase activity of groups D2~D4 were significantly higher than those of group D1 (P<0.05), but liver malondialdehyde content in groups D2~D4 was lower than that of group D1 (P<0.05). Overall, the whole-body protein content and tissue (liver and muscle) antioxidant capacity of group D4 were significantly higher than those of other groups, and no significant differences in growth performance were found between groups D4 and D1. The use of fish protein hydrolysate increased the level of protein metabolism and immune function of the fish and reduced the degree of liver cell damage. The results indicate that 14% terrestrial compound protein combined with 10% fish protein hydrolysate can effectively replace 80% fish meal in the diet of golden pompano when the amount of fish meal is reduced to 6%. This study is the first to investigate the feasibility of the application of fish protein hydrolysate in the formula feed of golden pompano, and the results will be relevant to the research for high-quality and inexpensive protein sources in the artificial formula feed of juvenile golden pompano.
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