文章摘要
孙威,张继红,吴文广,刘毅,仲毅,王新萌,康秦梓.基于生命周期法的养殖海带的碳足迹评估.渔业科学进展,2022,43(5):16-23
基于生命周期法的养殖海带的碳足迹评估
Carbon footprint assessment of cultured kelp based on life cycle assessment
投稿时间:2021-11-19  修订日期:2021-12-27
DOI:
中文关键词: 碳足迹  海带  海水养殖  桑沟湾  生命周期法
英文关键词: Carbon footprint  Kelp  Mariculture  Sanggou Bay  Life cycle assessment
基金项目:
作者单位
孙威 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
张继红 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071
青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
吴文广 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
刘毅 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
仲毅 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
王新萌 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
康秦梓 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
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中文摘要:
      碳足迹是指商品或服务在生产、运输、使用、处置的整个生命周期内排放的温室气体总量。为探究海带(Saccharina japonica)在整个养殖周期内CO2的源与汇,本研究基于生命周期评价理论构建了筏式养殖海带碳足迹测算方法,对桑沟湾养殖海带的碳足迹进行了测算,分析了碳足迹的主要影响因素和可能的误差来源。结果显示,养殖1 t海带的碳足迹约为–95.93 kgCO2e,其中,碳排放量为74.30 kgCO2e,碳吸收量为170.23 kgCO2e。从海带育苗开始至养成收获的整个过程是碳汇过程,其中,以海带生物质碳的形式固定的CO2占比约为79.9%,以沉积埋藏碳的形式固定的CO2占比约为14.1%,以惰性溶解有机碳(RDOC)的形式固定的CO2占比约为6.0%,沉积埋藏碳和惰性溶解有机碳长期封存于深海或海底;养殖设施是主要碳源,碳排放占比为93.81%,柴油和电能的碳排放占比分别为5.05%和1.14%,肥料和运输的碳排放占比仅有万分之一。
英文摘要:
      China has the largest population and contributes the most to greenhouse gas emissions in the world. Given the background of low-carbon emissions elsewhere, how to carry out emission reduction activities scientifically and rationally is a question that individuals, enterprises, governments, and countries must seriously consider. The carbon footprint refers to the total amount of greenhouse gases emitted by a commodity or service during the entire life cycle of the product, including production, transportation, use, and disposal. The carbon sink effect of cultured macroalgae in coastal waters is receiving considerable attention. However, international research on macroalgal carbon sinks is still poor, especially the carbon footprint of cultured macroalgae, which makes it impossible to include the carbon sinks of macroalgae within the scope of emission reductions such as “blue carbon.” Therefore, by calculating the carbon footprint of macroalgae, the carbon emissions of each stage in the entire life cycle can be determined, and subsequently scientific emission reduction measures can be formulated based on the calculated carbon footprint results of each stage to reduce emissions. Kelp (Saccharina japonica Areschoug) is the main macroalgae cultured in China. It has obvious advantages in aquaculture resources and has a very large potential for the development of carbon sinks. As a primary producer in the sea, organic matter is generated through photosynthesis, and carbon sequestration occurs during the kelp growth phase. However, CO2 is released during seedling growth, electricity utilizing of equipments, fuel consumption on boats, and facilities for culture. To explore the sources and sinks of CO2 emissions from kelp throughout the entire culture cycle and to establish a standard system for evaluating the carbon footprint of macroalgae production, based on the life cycle assessment theory, a carbon footprint calculation method for raft-cultured kelp was established in this study. The cradle-to-gate carbon footprint of cultured kelp in Sanggou Bay was calculated, and the main influencing factors of the carbon footprint and possible sources of error were analyzed. The life cycle assessment method included four parts: Goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, impact assessment, and interpretation of results. One ton of produced kelp was recorded as the functional unit of the carbon footprint of cultured kelp, and the entire life cycle of cultured kelp to form a kelp product was divided into three phases: Breeding, transport, and culture. The carbon footprints of the three stages were analyzed. The results showed that the carbon footprint of 1 t of kelp farming is –95.93 kgCO2e, which indicates that the entire process from breeding to growth and harvest is a carbon sink process. Among them, the carbon emission is 74.30 kgCO2e, and the carbon absorption is 170.23 kgCO2e. A carbon sink of 79.9% is in the form of kelp biomass carbon, 14.1% exists in the form of deposited buried carbon, and 6.0% exists in the form of refractory dissolved organic carbon (RDOC). Deposited buried carbon and RDOC can accumulate in the deep sea or on the seafloor for a long time. Previous studies on the carbon sink capacity of primary producers have primarily focused on biomass carbon formed by them. Further research confirmed that DOC released during the growth stage of kelp and RDOC formed by detritus under the action of microorganisms and deposited carbon are all important parts of fishery carbon sinks and are also important forms of long-term stable carbon pools in the ocean. If RDOC and deposited carbon are not considered, the carbon sink of cultured kelp will be underestimated by approximately 20%. Of course, differences in culture conditions, species, and modes in different seas make the formation rate of deposited carbon different. In addition, the formation process and mechanism of RDOC require further study. Aquaculture facilities were the main carbon source, and their carbon emissions accounted for 93.81%. Our research found that emission reduction can be achieved by extending the service life of aquaculture facilities. Each year of service life extension can reduce the emissions by 8%. The carbon emissions from diesel and electricity accounted for 5.05% and 1.14%, respectively. Sanggou Bay is a typical coastal water; therefore, the demand for energy during the breeding process is low. When the aquaculture area expands to the open sea, the proportion of the energy carbon footprint will greatly increase, and even become the main carbon source. Fertilizer and transportation account for only one ten-thousandth of carbon emissions. The kelp seedlings in the breeding area of Sanggou Bay come from Rongcheng; therefore, the amount of CO2 released during transportation was not high. Insufficient numbers of nurseries for kelp breeding will result in the seeds coming from other places, and the amount of CO2 released during transportation will also increase greatly. Therefore, strengthening the overall layout of the industrial chain is of great significance in reducing carbon emissions during transportation. With further understanding of the carbon sink function of cultured seaweeds, macroalgal cultures will play a more important role in ocean emission reduction. This study provides technical support for the establishment of carbon footprint evaluation procedures and standard systems for macroalgal farming.
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