文章摘要
蒋增杰,方建光,毛玉泽,姜娓娓,房景辉,蔺凡,高亚平,杜美荣,李瑞环.滤食性贝类养殖碳汇功能研究进展及未来值得关注的科学问题.渔业科学进展,2022,43(5):106-114
滤食性贝类养殖碳汇功能研究进展及未来值得关注的科学问题
Research progress on the carbon sink function of filter-feeding shellfish mariculture and future scientific issues
投稿时间:2022-02-25  修订日期:2022-05-18
DOI:
中文关键词: 滤食性贝类  养殖生态系统  浮游植物  碳生物地球化学循环  碳汇
英文关键词: Filter-feeding shellfish  Mariculture ecosystem  Phytoplankton  Carbon biogeochemical cycle  Carbon sink
基金项目:
作者单位
蒋增杰 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院碳汇渔业重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
方建光 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院碳汇渔业重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
毛玉泽 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院碳汇渔业重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
姜娓娓 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院碳汇渔业重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
房景辉 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院碳汇渔业重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
蔺凡 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院碳汇渔业重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
高亚平 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院碳汇渔业重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
杜美荣 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院碳汇渔业重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
李瑞环 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 中国水产科学研究院碳汇渔业重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
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中文摘要:
      我国是世界海水滤食性贝类养殖第一大国,滤食性贝类及其所处的近海生态系统与碳的生物地球化学过程关系密切。本文概述了滤食性贝类养殖碳汇研究进展,分析了目前在支撑数据的科学性和系统性、对关键过程和机理认知等方面存在的问题,提出了后续在碳汇形成过程和机制的基础研究、方法学研发和交易体系建设、碳汇扩增模式构建和产业化应用等亟需持续深入的方向。研究结果将为深入认识和科学评估滤食性贝类养殖生态系统的碳汇效应及其服务国家“双碳”战略目标的潜力提供科学依据。
英文摘要:
      The famous “keeling curve” revealed the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth´s atmosphere has risen from approximately 0.027% before 1700 to approximately 0.041% today. The associated global climate change has become one of the most serious issues of the 21st century. As a responsible government, China is an active participant and important contributor in the response to global climate change. In September 2020, China announced that it would aim to achieve peak CO2 emissions before 2030 and carbon neutrality before 2060 at the general debate of the 75th session of the United Nations General Assembly. Subsequently, local governments, industries, and enterprises are actively responding and working hard to formulate "timetables", "road maps" and "construction drawings" to promote the realization of the "dual carbon" goal. There are two main types of carbon sequestration: Biological and geological. Compared with the geological approach of carbon sequestration, biological carbon sequestration is technically mature, low cost, and has economic, ecological, social, and other benefits. A "fishery carbon sink" is a kind of biological carbon sink, which refers to the process and mechanism by which aquatic organisms absorb CO2 from water through fishery production activities and remove carbon from water or store it through harvesting and biodeposition. Mariculture is an important component of the "fishery carbon sink" and has recently developed exceedingly quickly. In 2020, mariculture production in China was 21.35 million tons. The structure of Chinese mariculture is distinctively characterized by species-rich diversity, dominant species concentration, multi-trophic levels, lower trophic levels, high eco-efficiency, and high yields. Shellfish, dominated by filter-feeding species, is the main mariculture species and accounts for almost 70% of the total mariculture yields in 2020. The filter-feeding shellfish and their associated coastal ecosystems are closely related to the carbon biogeochemical process. Due to the national "dual carbon" strategy and the industrial demand of "accelerating the green and high-quality development of aquaculture", it is of great theoretical and practical significance to analyze the ecological services of aquaculture bivalves from the carbon perspective. Shellfish use carbon in two ways — by using dissolved inorganic carbon to build their calcium carbonate shell, and by consuming particulate organic carbon as phytoplankton. Simultaneously, shellfish produce carbon dioxide in two ways — the chemistry of calcium carbonate production releases CO2, and CO2 is released as a waste product of metabolic processes, like other animals. Therefore, shellfish farming is proposed as both a source and sink of carbon dioxide. This article summarizes the progress of carbon sequestration research for filter-feeding shellfish aquaculture, including a series of relevant studies on the carbon removal capacity during harvesting, individual-level carbon budget, life cycle evaluation, biodeposition of particulate organic carbon, the impact of sea-air interface on CO2 exchange and so on. In summary, the current understanding of "the relationship between filter-feeding shellfish and carbon" can be divided into three categories: One is supported by the underlying logic of "reductionism", which considers filter-feeding shellfish as a carbon source based on the carbon dioxide release process of respiration and biological calcification. Another category is "holism" thinking as bottom logic support. This view mainly emphasizes that the carbon contained in the shell can be locked in the shell for a long time. With a deepening understanding of ecosystem structure and function, an increased number of scholars have realized that the interactions between shellfish, carbon flow, and nutrient cycling are complex, and understanding the magnitude of direct and feedback interactions between cultured populations and phytoplankton, particulate organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, and nutrient dynamics is crucial for understanding the carbon cycle. Therefore, assessing the role of shellfish aquaculture in the carbon budget should be based on an ecosystem approach that accounts for the complex trophic interactions involved in dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon cycling. This review analyzes the shortcomings of the existing research. The topics investigate the insufficient scientific and systematic supporting data and our insufficient understanding of key processes and mechanisms. Specifically, calcifying physiology, which is the key process in shell formation by shellfish. Previous studies generally assume that shellfish mainly use carbon from the DIC pool of the ambient water to precipitate CaCO3, without accounting for the incorporation of respired carbon into shell carbonate. The proportion of seawater DIC and respired carbon used for CaCO3 precipitation need to be distinguished. Regarding future directions, this article suggests paying more attention to the basic research of carbon sink process and mechanism, the development of methodology and a trading system, the construction, and industrial applications of the carbon sequestration amplification model. The limited space and ecological capacity of the inshore area within a depth of 20 m beneath the sea level suggests mariculture will need to expand offshore (to 20~40 m beneath the sea level). The results provide a scientific basis for further understanding and evaluating the carbon sink effect of the filter-feeding shellfish culture ecosystem and its potential to serve the national "dual carbon" strategic goals.
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