文章摘要
张继红,刘毅,吴文广,王新萌,仲毅.海洋渔业碳汇项目方法学探究.渔业科学进展,2022,43(5):151-159
海洋渔业碳汇项目方法学探究
Overview of the marine fishery carbon sink project methodology
投稿时间:2022-03-25  修订日期:2022-06-05
DOI:
中文关键词: 渔业碳汇  海水养殖  贝藻类  捕捞群体  方法学
英文关键词: Fishery carbon sink  Mariculture  Bivalve and seaweed  Capture stock  Methodology
基金项目:
作者单位
张继红 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
刘毅 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
吴文广 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
王新萌 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
仲毅 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071 
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中文摘要:
      碳汇项目方法学可规范碳汇项目设计文件编制和计量监测工作,确保项目产生的减排量达到可测量、可报告、可核查的要求,是进行碳交易的必要条件。本文梳理了当前碳汇项目方法的现状、他山之石—林业碳汇方法学的主要内容、海洋渔业碳汇相关理论和标准的研究进展,并对我国海洋渔业碳汇研究、标准及碳汇项目方法学开发面临的问题进行了分析,提出了具体的建议,以期为渔业碳汇方法学的建立及早日进入碳汇交易市场提供科学参考。当前,清洁发展机制(Clean Development Mechanism, CDM)和核证碳标准(Verified Carbon Standard, VCS)开发了林业碳汇方法学及红树林、湿地和海草等蓝碳项目的方法学。目前,尚无有关渔业碳汇监测和计量的国际标准和国家标准。海洋渔业碳汇计量和监测等一系列方法学体系尚未建成,无法全面系统评估我国海洋渔业碳汇能力和可交易量,海洋渔业碳汇与我国经济发展尚未建立耦联关系。一批相关的行业标准正在研制过程中。但是,关于海洋渔业碳汇的时效性、计量方法等尚存在不确定性。对此,建议加强海洋渔业碳汇理论研究、建全海洋渔业碳汇计量的数据体系、建立海洋渔业碳汇的示范区域和关注收获贝藻类的合理利用,以解决目前有关海洋渔业碳汇的争议问题,促进海洋渔业碳汇项目开发方法学建立,推进我国渔业碳汇交易市场的发展,发挥海洋渔业在应对气候变化中的作用。
英文摘要:
      This methodology regulates the carbon sink project preparation of design documents and measurement monitoring and ensures that the emission reductions generated by the project meet the requirements of measurable, reportable, and verifiable outcomes, which are necessary conditions for carbon trading. In this paper, we presented an overview of the current status of carbon sink project methodology, the key content of forest carbon sink methodology, and the research progress of marine fishery carbon sink theories and standards. According to the problems faced by marine fishery carbon sink in China, specific suggestions are proposed to provide scientific reference for the establishment of marine fishery carbon sink methodology and implement it into the carbon sink trading market early. Currently, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and the Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) have developed 26 forestry carbon sink methodologies. There are 6 forestry carbon-sink project methodologies being developed by China Certified Emission Reduction (CCER) in China. In 2021, 9 blue carbon-related methodologies such as mangroves, wetlands, and seagrass were launched successively. In this paper, we have briefly introduced the main content of the forestry carbon sink project methodology in order to inspire the development of marine fishery methodology. The carbon sink project methodology usually consists of 3 parts. The first part includes an introduction, applicable conditions, normative references, and definitions. The second part includes baseline and project carbon methods of calculation. The third part includes the monitoring procedures. The carbon sink calculation method is an important part of the methodology. The key to the formation of carbon sink calculated methods is to clarify the carbon sequestration function and mechanism of project activities, including the identification of carbon storage changes in carbon pools going to be caused by the project activities. The determination and selection of carbon pools and greenhouse gas emission sources is the premise of carbon sink measurement. Also, except the carbon dioxide, we should pay attention to whether there are other sources of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption during fishing activities. In particular, attention should be paid to the timeliness of carbon sinks. If harvesting occurs under the project scenario, the long-term change in the carbon stock of the project's wood products is equal to the carbon in the wood products still in use and going to landfill at the end of the project period or 30 years after the product is produced, while the rest is assumed to be immediately discharged when wood products are produced. There are currently no international and national standards for monitoring and calculation of carbon sinks in fisheries. Without a series of methodological systems, it is impossible to evaluate fishery carbon sink capacity and tradable volume of China comprehensively and systematically. The coupling relationship between fishery carbon sinks and economic development has not yet been established. Several industry standards are under development. However, there are still uncertainties and many challenges regarding the timeliness and measurement methods of fishery carbon sinks. The primary controversy over the carbon sink of seaweed farming is the timing of carbon sequestration. For mariculture bivalve, it is complete and needs to be considered from the perspective of an entire ecosystem. In terms of yield and scale, China is the largest mariculture country in the world. Non-feeding species such as bivalve and seaweed are mainly mariculture species. The mariculture of bivalve and seaweed is advantageous owing to low cost, high yield, and strong controllability. At the same time, bivalve and seaweed can improve the regional marine environment, such as alleviating ocean acidification and hypoxia, reducing marine eutrophication and harmful algal blooms. Recently, the marine capture stock amounted to 1000 million tons. The fishery carbon sink is a relatively new concept, and its incorporation into the global climate governance system has just started. In this regard, it is recommended to strengthen the theoretical research on fishery carbon sinks, establish a data system for fishery carbon sink measurement, establish a demonstration area for the research of fishery carbon sinks methodology, and pay attention to the rational use of harvested shellfish, seaweed, and the captured stock, to solve the current problems regarding fishery carbon sinks and promote the development of carbon sinks fisheries. The development of the carbon sink project methodology will help promote the development fishery carbon sink trading market and play the role of fisheries in coping with climate change.
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