文章摘要
DNA条形码技术鉴定青岛市售三文鱼水产品
Identification of salmon aquatic products sold in Qingdao by DNA barcoding technology
投稿时间:2020-03-03  修订日期:2020-04-01
DOI:
中文关键词: 三文鱼  DNA条形码  大西洋鲑(Salmo salar)  虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)
英文关键词: Salmon  DNA barcoding  Salmo salar  Oncorhynchus mykiss
基金项目:国家重点研发计划 (2019YFC1604702)
作者单位E-mail
赵新宁 上海海洋大学 水产与生命学院
中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 
18306391085@163.com 
牟铭 上海海洋大学 水产与生命学院中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
李昂 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所  
柳淑芳 中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 黄渤海渔业资源与生态创新团队 liusf@ysfri.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      “三文鱼”是鲑鳟鱼类的统称,是国际公认的高档水产品。近年来,养殖虹鳟的大量供给对世界三文鱼贸易带来较大冲击,引发了一场“真假三文鱼”大战。因三文鱼食材品质考究且市场价格昂贵,人工养殖的淡水虹鳟与公众印象中来自大西洋的名贵三文鱼难以相提并论。虹鳟的三文鱼冠名之争引起消费者对市场上三文鱼真实身份的高度关注。水产品市场上流通的三文鱼究竟包含哪些种类?其商品标识是否真实?然而对普通消费者来说,仅凭感官甄别市售三文鱼是大西洋鲑或虹鳟难度很大。广泛应用于物种分类学研究的DNA条形码为物种快速准确鉴定提供了强有力的技术支撑。本文采用DNA条形码技术对青岛市六个城区大型商超和农贸市场的三文鱼商品标识与实际物种信息进行了调查。在采集的74份三文鱼样品中,成分为大西洋鲑(Salmo salar)的样品有61份,占比为82.43%;成分为虹鳟(Oncorhynchus mykiss)的样品有11份,占比为14.86%;另外青岛市售三文鱼商品中还含有一定比例的大麻哈鱼(Oncorhynchus keta)和银大麻哈鱼(Oncorhynchus kisutch),共占比为1.35%。虽然调查数据显示青岛市场流通的三文鱼商品以大西洋鲑为主,但核对商品标识与实际物种信息发现,14.86%的三文鱼外包装标识商品名称与检测结果不一致,且有四成多的三文鱼商品未标注产地信息。可见,三文鱼水产品仍存在一定的掺杂使假风险和食品安全风险,这一国际公认的高端水产品的市场监管还有待于加强,建议相关部门应尽快制定产品标准和检测标准,确保三文鱼水产品质量安全可溯源。
英文摘要:
      Salmon is the trade name of salmon and trout, which is a kind of internationally recognized high-grade aquatic products. In recent years, the large-scale supply of rainbow trout has brought a great impact on the world salmon trade, triggering a war of "real and fake salmon Due to the high quality and high market price of salmon, the cultured freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cannot be compared with the famous Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from the Atlantic Ocean in the public impression. What are the species of salmon in aquatic market? Is the species information indicated on the label true? However, it is very difficult for ordinary consumers to identify the salmon on the market by their senses. Now DNA barcoding has been widely used in the study of species taxonomy, which provides a powerful technology for rapid and accurate identification of species. In this paper, DNA barcoding was used to investigate the consistency between the label information and the actual species of salmon products in six large supermarkets and aquatic markets in Qingdao. Of the 74 salmon samples collected, 61 were Salmo salar, accounting for 82.43%; 11 were Oncorhynchus mykiss, accounting for 14.86%; in addition, a certain proportion of Oncorhynchus keta and Oncorhynchus kisutch were also sold in Qingdao, accounting for 1.35%. Although the survey data shows that Atlantic salmon is the main salmon products in Qingdao market, it is found that 14.86% of the salmon products with outer packing mark names are inconsistent with the test results, and more than 40% of the salmon products are not marked with origin information. Thus, there are still some adulteration risks and food safety risks in salmon aquatic products. The market supervision of this internationally recognized high-end aquatic product needs to be strengthened. The relevant departments should formulate product standards and testing standards as soon as possible to ensure the safety and traceability of salmon aquatic quality.
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