文章摘要
辽宁大连裙带菜的虫害生物调查及其系统发育分析
Phylogenetic analysis of the algal pests in the farming region of the economic alga Undaria pinnatifida at Dalian
投稿时间:2020-01-13  修订日期:2020-03-18
DOI:
中文关键词: 裙带菜  麦杆虫  污损生物  害虫  线粒体COI基因
英文关键词: Undaria pinnatifida  Caprella spp.  fouling organism  pest  mitochondrial COI gene
基金项目:藻类产业技术体系(CARS-50)、国家科技支撑计划课题(2015BAD13B05)、山东省泰山学者特聘专家计划、中国科学院海洋研究所汇泉学者计划、国家自然科学基金项目(41876178)、中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(A类)子课题(XDA23050304)
作者单位E-mail
李晓东 中国科学院海洋研究所 xdli@qdio.ac.cn 
曾宥维 中国科学院海洋研究所  
冷晓飞 大连海宝渔业有限公司  
张明付 大连海宝渔业有限公司  
李新正 中国科学院海洋研究所  
逄少军 中国科学院海洋研究所 sjpang@qdio.ac.cn 
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中文摘要:
      辽宁省大连市是我国裙带菜(Undaria pinnatifida)的主产区,裙带菜年产量占全国产量的65%。2019年10月下旬,该地区裙带菜遭受大面积虫害,受灾面积不少于15.36公顷。本研究通过现场调查和形态学鉴定,确定了虫害是因丹氏麦杆虫(Caprella danilevskii Czerniavski, 1868)为代表的麦杆虫属(Caprella spp.)动物爆发生长导致。麦杆虫常见污损于养殖海藻和海水养殖设备上,近年来对我国福建地区的羊栖菜(Sargassum fusiforme)养殖业、山东地区的龙须菜(Gracilaria lemaneaformis)养殖业造成了巨大损失,而我国渤海养殖海区此前未见遭受麦杆虫虫害的严重影响的报道。本研究讨论了气候变暖和漂浮铜藻(Sargassum horneri)在此次虫害爆发中起到的作用,并首次对我国同一海区采集到的不同麦杆虫属物种的形态学特征做出描述。生产上我们建议将碳酸氢铵(NH4HCO3,俗称“碳铵”)制作为传统“挂袋肥”的方式悬挂在养殖筏架上,能够驱散、杀死麦杆虫并提供藻类生长所需的氮元素。采用贝叶斯法基于线粒体DNA细胞色素氧化酶亚基I(COI)基因片段构建了麦杆虫属物种的系统发育树。序列分析显示:该COI基因片段长度为479bp,AT含量为63%,转换/颠换偏倚率R值为1.130,序列未发生缺失或插入现象;种间遗传距离平均值为0.231(0.210-0.279),种内遗传距平均值为0.014(0.000-0.030)。研究结果表明线粒体COI基因序列具有适宜的变异信息,种内保守,种间存在差异,适用于麦杆虫属的物种识别,并为开发麦杆虫属DNA条形码技术奠定了基础。
英文摘要:
      Dalian is the principal farming region of the economic alga Undaria pinnatifida, producing 65% of the national annual biomass. In late October 2019, insect pests caused serious damage to seedlings of U. pinnatifida in that region. We have made field investigation excursions and analyzed pest samples through the sequencing mitochondrial COI gene. Results showed that the explosive growth of Caprella danilevskii was the major cause. The Caprella spp. were considered as common biofouling organisms that they usually inhabited on the surface of maricultural algae and maricultural facilities such as cultural rope and oysters net. Steadily elevated seawater temperature and the drifted biomass of the brown alga Sargassum horneri also played a role in the explosion of the pests. To our knowledge, it is the first time to describe morphological characteristics of different Caprella species collected in the same area in China. The Caprella species could be commonly found on the surface of cultured seaweed and marine aquaculture facilities, which has caused enormous loss to Sargassum fusiforme farming industry in Fujian Province and Gracilaria lemaneaformis farming industry in Shandong Province for the past few years. We conclude with a proposal for dispersing or killing Caprella species through a traditional fertilizer application method using ammonium bicarbonate. Sequence analysis revealed that these COI gene fragments were 479 bp in length and showed an obvious AT-skewness. The transition/transversion bias (1.130) was much higher than the critical value (0.4), which could offer effective phylogenetic information. There was no insertion or deletion that occurred in each fragment. The average inter-species genetic distance was 0.231(0.210-0.279) and the average intra-species genetic distance was 0.014(0.000-0.030). The phylogenetic relationships among Caprella species were represented. Results proved that the cloned COI gene contains rich information on gene variations. This gene is conserved in intra-species and different among species. It is a suitable DNA barcode for identifying species in the genus of Caprella.
相关附件:   矢量图  TIF图_600ppi  表格  表格  TIF格式图  万方20200113(10.35%)  表1  审稿意见回复  2020.3.13修改说明.docx  表1 旅顺裙带菜养殖区采集点污损生物名录.docx  表4 本研究中获得的序列.docx  参考文献.docx  图2.ai  图3.ai  万方20200318_审稿(11.18%)
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