文章摘要
大刺鳅(Mastacembelus armatus)消化道结构及食性研究
Research on structure of digestive tract and feeding habits in Mastacembelus armatus
投稿时间:2021-02-24  修订日期:2021-03-24
DOI:
中文关键词: 大刺鳅  消化道  形态学  组织学  食性
英文关键词: Mastacembelus armatus  digestive tract  morphology  histology  feeding habits
基金项目:江西省重点研发计划项目(20171ACF60012)、江西省现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(JXARS-10)
作者单位邮编
马本贺 江西省水产科学研究所南昌市特种水产繁育与健康养殖重点实验室 330039
王海华 江西省水产科学研究所南昌市特种水产繁育与健康养殖重点实验室 330039
徐先栋 江西省水产科学研究所南昌市特种水产繁育与健康养殖重点实验室 
李燕华 江西省水产科学研究所南昌市特种水产繁育与健康养殖重点实验室 
王梦杰 江西省水产科学研究所南昌市特种水产繁育与健康养殖重点实验室 
吴斌 江西省水产科学研究所南昌市特种水产繁育与健康养殖重点实验室 
陶志英 江西省水产科学研究所南昌市特种水产繁育与健康养殖重点实验室 
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中文摘要:
      为了解大刺鳅(Mastacembelus armatus)消化道结构特点及其功能与食性的关系,以采自东江和桃江水域的大刺鳅为研究对象,采用解剖、石蜡切片、HE染色、胃含物分析等方法,观察研究了大刺鳅消化道的形态学、组织学结构及食性特征。结果显示:大刺鳅消化道由口咽腔、食道、胃和肠构成;口咽腔具舌、咽骨和咽磨;食道黏膜上皮为复层扁平上皮,含有丰富的杯状细胞,内壁具纵行褶皱和次级分支,肌层由横纹肌和平滑肌共同组成;胃壁和肠壁均由黏膜层、黏膜下层、肌层和浆膜层构成,肌层为平滑肌,分为环肌和纵肌;胃呈“V”型,分为贲门部、胃体部、幽门部三个部分,各部分的肌层厚度达到显著差异(P<0.05),贲门部向胃体部逐渐增粗,且含有胃腺细胞,幽门部肌层极为发达,形成幽门括约肌;肠较短,具一个弯曲,肠道系数为(0.325±0.050),肠绒毛丰富,前肠、中肠、后肠的肠绒毛高度差异显著(P<0.05);胃幽门部和前肠间有两个幽门盲囊。大刺鳅食谱较广,消化道中鉴定出虾类、水生昆虫、鱼类、螺、卵和植物碎屑6大类饵料,摄食时食物不经咀嚼直接吞入;食物多样性指数(H’)为2.19, 不确定性较低,饵料优势指数(D)为0.33,集中性较高;虾类为大刺鳅的主要食物,其相对重要性指数百分比(IRI%)、质量百分比(W%)和数量百分比(N%)分别为97.75%、92.29%和73.07%。结果表明,大刺鳅属肉食性鱼类,其消化道形态和组织学结构表现出与食性相适应的特点,该研究可为大刺鳅人工养殖和饲料开发提供理论参考。
英文摘要:
      Mastacembelus armatus is primarily distributed in the Yangtze river and the water system in the south of the China, affiliated with Mastacembelus, Mastacembelidae, Symbranchiformes. It has great economic value and breeding prospects due to its high meat quality and balanced nutrition. However, with overfishing and human influences on the habitat, the population of M. armatus has gradually decreased. We characterized the morphology and histology of the M. armatus digestive tract, aiming to investigate the relationship between morphological and histological features of the digestive tract and feeding behavior. The approaches of anatomy, paraffin section, HE staining and stomach contents analysis were used to study samples collected from the Dongjiang river and Taojiang river in Ganzhou, Jiangxi province. The results indicated that the digestive tract was composed of oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus, stomach and intestine. The oropharyngeal cavity contains tongue, pharyngeal bone and callous pad. The mucosal surface of the esophagus was covered with squamous epithelial cells and the inner wall was full of longitudinal folds and secondary branches. The muscle layer consisted of striated muscles and smooth muscles. The gastric wall and intestinal wall were composed of mucosal layer, submucosa, muscle layer and serosal layer. The mucosal layer was a single layer of columnar epithelium, and the muscle layer was smooth muscle, which was divided into circular muscle and longitudinal muscle. The “V-shaped” stomach was divided into cardia, gastric body and pylorus. The thickness of the muscular layer of each part was significantly different (P<0.05). There were no goblet cells in the mucosa, but lots of glands were located in the cardia and the body of the stomach. The gastric pylorus muscle layer was extremely developed. And there were two pyloric caecum between stomach and intestine. The intestine had a curve and included three parts: foregut, midgut and hindgut. The average intestinal coefficient of M. armatus was 0.325±0.050). There were significant differences between the anterior, middle, and posterior intestinal villi. There were nine prey items identified in the digestive tract of M. armatus, including shrimp, aquatic insect, fishes, snails, eggs, and plant detritus. The average percentage of stomach fullness index was 2.86%. The prey diversity H’ was 2.19, prey dominace D was 0.33. Shrimp was dominated in the stomach contents, accounting for the relative importance index percentage (%IRI) of 97.75%、numerical percentage of 92.29%, and quality percentage of 73.07%, respectively. In conclusion, the histological structure of digestive system of M. armatus is related with its function and feeding habits. This study provides a theoretical basis for its wild resource conservation and nutrition research of M. armatus.
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