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不同规格玉筋鱼的营养分析与评价
刘胜男1, 王善宇1,2, 曹荣1, 赵玲1, 刘淇1
1.中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 山东 青岛 266071;2.江苏海洋大学 江苏 连云港 222005
摘要:
为了解玉筋鱼(Ammodytes personatus)的营养价值,系统分析了3种不同规格玉筋鱼的基本营养成分、氨基酸组成、脂肪酸组成和无机元素组成。结果显示,样品规格越小,其水分、灰分和粗蛋白含量越高,粗脂肪含量越低。17种被检出的水解氨基酸中含量最高的4种氨基酸分别为谷氨酸、天门冬氨酸、赖氨酸和亮氨酸,并且规格越小,水解氨基酸含量和必需氨基酸含量越高;根据氨基酸评分分析结果可知,玉筋鱼的第一限制性氨基酸为缬氨酸,第二限制性氨基酸为异亮氨酸;根据化学评分可知,其第一限制性氨基酸为含硫氨基酸(蛋氨酸+半胱氨酸),第二限制性氨基酸为缬氨酸;其必需氨基酸指数分别为90.75、85.74和86.04。不同规格样品的脂肪酸组成有明显的差异,饱和脂肪酸含量由小到大分别为41.71、60.68和69.31 mg/g,单不饱和脂肪酸分别为31.81、65.03和103.91 mg/g,多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFA)分别为83.17、110.71和109.39 mg/g,并且规格越大,C20:5 n3占PUFA的比例越高,C22:6 n3占PUFA的比例越低。玉筋鱼富含人体所需的多种无机元素,常量元素中Na和K含量最高,微量元素中Fe和Zn的含量最高。研究表明,玉筋鱼是一种营养价值较高、味道鲜美的优质鱼类。
关键词:  玉筋鱼  规格  营养组成  品质评价
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Nutritional Composition Analysis and Quality Evaluation of Different Sizes of Ammodytes personatus
LIU Shengnan1, WANG Shanyu1,2, CAO Rong1, ZHAO Ling1, LIU Qi1
1.Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, China;2.Jiangsu Ocean University, Lianyungang, Jiangsu 222005, China
Abstract:
To determine the nutritional value of three different sizes of Ammodytes personatus, basic nutrient, amino acid, fatty acid, and inorganic element composition were systematically analyzed. The results showed that the lower the weight of A. personatus, the higher the content of moisture, ash, and crude protein and the lower the content of crude fat. Glutamate, aspartate, lysine, and leucine were the most abundant among the 17 kinds of alternative amino acids in A. personatus. The lower the sample weight, the higher the total amount of hydrolyzed and essential amino acids. According to the result of amino acid scoring (AAS) analysis, the first limiting amino acid of A. personatus was valine, and the second limiting amino acid was isoleucine. According to the result of chemistry scoring (CS) analysis, the first limiting amino acids were sulfur-containing amino acids (Met+Cys), and the second limiting amino acid was valine; the essential amino acid indices were 90.75, 85.74, and 86.04, respectively. The fatty acid compositions of the samples with different specifications were significantly different. According to the three samples of small, medium and large weight, saturated fatty acid contents were 41.71 mg/g, 60.68 mg/g, and 69.31 mg/g respectively; monounsaturated fatty acid contents were 31.81 mg/g, 65.03 mg/g, and 103.91 mg/g respectively; and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) contents were 83.17 mg/g, 110.71 mg/g, and 109.39 mg/g respectively. The larger the specification, the higher the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid and the lower the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid in PUFA. A. personatus was found to be rich in a variety of inorganic elements needed by the human body; the contents of Na and K were the highest among the major elements, and the contents of Fe and Zn were the highest among the trace elements. This study have shown that A. personatus is a high-quality fish with high nutritional value and delicious taste.
Key words:  Ammodytes personatus  Size  Nutrition composition  Quality evaluation