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基于流刺网调查的海阳近岸口虾蛄渔业生物学研究
徐鑫1, 王蕾1, 邱盛尧1, 刘淑德2, 董秀强2
1.烟台大学海洋学院 山东 烟台 264005;2.山东省水生生物资源养护管理中心 山东 烟台 264005
摘要:
2018年3月—2019年9月,每月对山东海阳近岸流刺网渔船的主要渔获物口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)进行跟踪采样,测定样品的体长和体质量,鉴定摄食强度和雌性的卵巢发育程度,计算渔获物中雌、雄的比例,对口虾蛄的渔业生物学进行分析。结果显示,流刺网全年口虾蛄渔获物中,雌、雄比例为1∶1.03,4月和12月的雌、雄样品平均体长差异不显著(P>0.05),其余月份均存在显著差异(P<0.05)。雌性口虾蛄全年优势体长为100~140 mm,优势体质量为10~40 g;雄性口虾蛄优势体长为110~150 mm,优势体质量为20~50 g;除12月外,其余月份雌、雄样品体长分布均存在显著差异(P<0.05)。雌性口虾蛄全年样品性腺成熟度在Ⅰ~Ⅳ期,Ⅲ期和Ⅳ期个体主要出现在4—5月及10月—次年1月;雌性有2个性成熟高峰期,分别为5月和1月。10月雌、雄口虾蛄空胃率全年最低,体长相对增长速率最高。雌性口虾蛄体长与体质量关系为W=5.39×10–5 L2.709 8 (R2=0.825 4,P<0.05),雄性口虾蛄体长与体质量关系为W=2.62×10–5L2.874 4 (R2=0.798 6,P<0.05)。流刺网渔获物中雌、雄口虾蛄群体结构具有一定的差异。
关键词:  口虾蛄  流刺网  群体结构  渔业生物学
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Drift Net Survey of Oratosquilla oratoria Fishery Biology in the Nearshore Region of Haiyang
XU Xin1, WANG Lei1, QIU Shengyao1, LIU Shude2, DONG Xiuqiang2
1.Marine Institute of Yantai University, Yantai, Shandong 264005, China;2.Shandong Aquatic Biological Resources Conservation, Yantai, Shandong 264005, China
Abstract:
Oratosquilla oratoria is the main catch of drift net fishery in the nearshore area of Haiyang. To achieve sustainable use of resources, it is necessary to study the population status and life history characteristics of this species. During the period from March 2018 to September 2019, O. oratoria samples caught by a drifter in the Haiyang inshore current were analyzed monthly, excluding the months of the summer fishing moratorium. The body length and body weight of the samples were measured, the feeding intensity and ovarian development degree of the females were identified, and the ratio of males to females in the catch was calculated. The results showed that the ratio of males to females was 1: 1.03 over the whole year of catching. There was no significant difference in average body length between male and female samples in April and December (P>0.05), but there were significant differences in other months (P<0.05). The dominant body length of female O. oratoria ranged from 100 to 140 mm, with dominant body weight ranging from 10 to 40 g. The dominant body length of male O. oratoria was 110~150 mm, with a dominant body weight of 20~50 g. Except for December, there were significant differences in body length distribution between male and female samples in all months (P<0.05). The gonad maturity of female O. oratoria samples ranged from stages Ⅰto Ⅳ over the whole year, with individuals in stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ primarily appearing from April to May, and October to January of the following year. May and January represent the 2 peak periods of sexual maturity for females. In October, the empty stomach rate of male and female O. oratoria was the lowest in the whole year, with the highest relative growth rate of body length. The relationship between body length and weight of female O. oratoria was W=5.39×10–5L2.709 8 (R2=0.825 4, P<0.05), while the relationship between body length and weight of male O. oratoria was W=2.62×10–5L2.874 4 (R2=0.798 6, P<0.05). In addition, there were some differences between the male and female group structures.
Key words:  Oratosquilla oratoria  Drift net  Group structure  Fishery biology