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中华圆田螺氨基酸、脂肪酸营养价值与重金属安全性评价
薛飞, 黄凯, 宿志健, 黄秀芸, 庞林星, 莫翠琴
广西大学动物科学技术学院 广西 南宁 530004
摘要:
为分析中华圆田螺(Cipangopaludina cathayensis)肌肉营养成分及重金属污染状况,检测了中华圆田螺肌肉的常规营养成分、氨基酸、脂肪酸及部分重金属含量,采用氨基酸评分(AAS)和化学评分(CS)对肌肉氨基酸进行评价,并用单因子污染指数(I)、综合污染指数(P)和目标危险系数(THQ)对肌肉安全性进行评价。结果显示,中华圆田螺粗蛋白、水分、粗脂肪和粗灰分含量分别为13.89%、76.52%、0.57%和5.21%;肌肉中共检出16种氨基酸,总量为106.2 mg/g,包含8种人体必需氨基酸,占比36.8%,必需氨基酸指数(EAAI)为248.2,鲜味氨基酸占比48.2%。共检出19种脂肪酸,其中,8种饱和脂肪酸(SFA),占比43.8%;11种不饱和脂肪酸,占比56.2%,其中,EPA+DHA (eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid)含量达到了9.77%。肌肉中铅、镉、铬和铜含量分别为0.897、0.0055、0.214和4.62 mg/kg,均符合国家卫生标准。除铅污染指数为0.897外,其余均低于0.15。综合污染指数为0.66,处于较清洁状态。综合来看,中华圆田螺具有高蛋白、低脂肪的营养特性,EPA和DHA含量丰富,无重金属暴露风险,营养价值及养殖开发价值较高。本研究探究了中华圆田螺的营养价值和安全性,可为中华圆田螺资源合理开发利用提供一定参考。
关键词:  中华圆田螺  营养组成  氨基酸  脂肪酸  重金属  安全评价
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Analysis and Evaluation of Amino Acids, Fatty Acids and Safety of Heavy Metals in Cipangopaludina cathayensis
XUE Fei, HUANG Kai, SU Zhijian, HUANG Xiuyun, PANG Linxing, MO Cuiqin
College of Animal Science and Technology, Guangxi University, Nanning, Guangxi 530004, China
Abstract:
The breeding of snails is indispensable in Guangxi agriculture. The snail powder industry in Liuzhou City, Guangxi, reaches 8 billion yuan per year. With the improvement of living standards, people's demand for aquatic products is increasing, and their nutritional and safety requirements are becoming more stringent. In order to analyze the nutrient content of the muscles of Cipangopaludina cathayensis and the pollution of heavy metals, we tested the muscle content of conventional nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, and some heavy metals in C. cathayensis snails from Luchuan County, Yulin, Guangxi. The amino acid score (AAS) and chemical score (CS) were used to evaluate muscle amino acid levels, while the single factor pollution index (I), comprehensive pollution index (P), and target risk factor (THQ) were used to evaluate safety. The results showed that the crude protein, moisture, crude fat, and crude ash content of C. cathayensis were 13.89%, 76.52%, 0.57%, and 5.21%, respectively; 16 amino acids were detected in the muscle; the total amount was 106.2 mg/g, including 8 human essential amino acids, accounting for 36.8% of the mass; the essential amino acid index (EAAI) was 248.2, and delicious amino acids accounted for 48.2%. A total of 19 fatty acids were detected, including 8 saturated fatty acids (SFA), accounting for 43.8%, and 11 unsaturated fatty acids, accounting for 56.2%. The EPA+DHA content reached 9.77%, and the atherosclerosis index (IA) and thrombosis index (IT) were 0.08 and 0.12, respectively. The contents of lead, cadmium, chromium, and copper in the muscle were 0.897, 0.0055, 0.214, and 4.62 mg/kg, respectively, all of which met the national health standards. The pollution index for lead was 0.897, while that for all others were below 0.15. The comprehensive pollution index was 0.66, which is relatively clean. The THQ evaluation results show that copper has the lowest risk, and lead has the highest risk. The total hazard coefficient (TTHQ) of a single heavy metal THQ and compound heavy metal was less than 0.3. In summary, C. cathayensis has high protein and low fat content, is rich in EPA and DHA, with no risk of heavy metal exposure, and has high nutritional and aquaculture development value. This study explored the nutritional value and safety of C. cathayensis and could therefore, provide some reference for the rational development and utilization of C. cathayensis resources in China.
Key words:  Cipangopaludina cathayensis  Nutritional composition  Amino acids  Fatty acids  Heavy metals  Safety evaluation