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三种营养类型水库和人工养殖池塘鳙鱼养成品的肌肉品质差异
何伟1, 罗辉2, 杜思雨1, 熊子标2, 敬庭森2, 章杰2
1.重庆两江生态渔业发展有限公司 重庆 401120;2.西南大学动物科学技术学院 重庆 402460
摘要:
为探究不同水体营养类型对鳙鱼(Aristichthys nobilis)肌肉营养成分组成和含量的影响,采用单因素实验设计,选择富、中、贫营养型天然水库和人工池塘的鳙鱼(体长为44.98~48.98 cm; 体重为1946.37~2289.32 g),测定其常规肉物性、营养成分、氨基酸和脂肪酸组成。结果显示,不同水体营养类型对鳙鱼肉pH值、a*值、剪切力、水分和粗灰分无显著影响(P>0.05)。相比人工池塘,天然水库鳙鱼L*值、蒸煮损失率显著降低(P<0.05);贫营养型水库鳙鱼粗脂肪含量显著降低(P<0.05);中、贫营养型水库鳙鱼粗蛋白含量显著降低(P<0.05)。不同营养型水库之间相比,富、中营养型水库鳙鱼粗脂肪含量显著高于贫营养型水库(P<0.05);富营养型水库鳙鱼粗蛋白显著高于中、贫营养型水库(P<0.05)。天然水库和人工池塘鳙鱼均检出17种氨基酸和13种脂肪酸,但天然水库鳙鱼必需氨基酸、棕榈酸、豆蔻酸和二十碳一烯酸含量显著高于人工池塘(P<0.05)。研究表明,天然水库鳙鱼具有肉色优质、肌肉系水力强、低脂肪和必需氨基酸含量高等优点。
关键词:  水体营养类型  鳙鱼  肌肉品质  营养成分
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Differences in meat quality of bighead carp between the three nutritional types of reservoir and artificial culture pond
HE Wei1, LUO Hui2, DU Siyu1, XIONG Zibiao2, JING Tingsen2, ZHANG Jie2
1.Chongqing Liangjiang Ecological Fishery Development Co., Ltd., Chongqing 401120, China;2.College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University, Chongqing 402460, China
Abstract:
Water bodies with nutritional differences have different plankton composition, which may lead to different food composition for bighead carp, thus affecting the meat quality. At present, the annual output of bighead carp in China is approximately 3.1 million tons, and its feeding amount occupies a dominant position in fish farming in China. As the economy develops, consumers demand better food quality and especially high nutritional value. Therefore, this study explored the changes in the nutrient composition and content of bighead carp in different nutritional types of water. Using a single-factor experiment design, we selected bighead carp that were raised in high-, medium-, and low-nutrition natural reservoirs and artificial ponds (body length: 44.98~48.98 cm; weight: 1946.37~2289.32 g) and determined the physical properties and nutritional composition of the meat. The results showed that different nutritional types of water had no significant effect on the pH, a* value, shear force, water content, and ash content (P>0.05). Compared with artificial ponds, the L* value and cooking loss rate in the natural reservoir and the crude fat content in low-nutrient reservoir were significantly reduced (P<0.05), whereas the crude protein content in medium- and low-nutrient reservoirs were significantly decreased (P<0.05). When comparing reservoirs of different nutrition types, the crude fat content in high- and medium- nutrient reservoirs were significantly greater than low-nutrient reservoirs (P<0.05). Additionally, the crude protein content in high-nutrient reservoirs was significantly higher than medium- and low-nutrient reservoirs (P<0.05). Seventeen amino acids and 13 fatty acids were detected in bighead carp reared in natural reservoirs and artificial ponds. However, levels of essential amino acids, palmitic acid, myristic acid, and eicosaenoic acid in the natural reservoir were significantly higher than in the artificial pond (P<0.05). Taken together, the meat of bighead carp raised in natural reservoirs has the advantages of high quality meat color, strong water-holding capacity, low fat, and high essential amino acid content.
Key words:  Nutritional types of water  Bighead carp  Meat quality  Nutritional content