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黄海秋季鱼类群落关键种的年代际变化
苏程程,单秀娟,杨涛,韩青鹏
1.中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所 农业农村部海洋渔业可持续发展重点实验室 山东省渔业资源与生态环境重点实验室 山东 青岛 266071;2.上海海洋大学海洋科学学院 上海 201306;3.青岛海洋科学与技术试点国家实验室海洋渔业科学与食物产出过程功能实验室 山东 青岛 266237;4.中国海洋大学水产学院 山东 青岛 266003
摘要:
本研究基于1985、2001、2009和2018年秋季黄海渔业资源调查数据,构建了黄海鱼类群落食物网拓扑结构,分析了黄海鱼类群落关键种的年代际变化。结果显示,1985—2018年间,黄海鱼类食物网包含物种67~103个,摄食关系数量为300~449个,食物网拓扑结构密度范围为0.198~0.227,种间关联度为0.044~0.074,符合自然条件下的群落种间摄食关系。1985—2018年间,黄海秋季鱼类群落关键种为鳀(Engraulis japonicus)、黄鮟鱇(Lophius litulon)和小黄鱼(Larimichthys polyactis)。秋季黄海关键种并未发生变化,鳀为关键被捕食者,小黄鱼是控制群落离散变量的物种,两者的资源均出现衰退;黄鮟鱇作为关键捕食者,其相对资源量上升。1985—2018年间,秋季黄海优势种变化明显,由黄鮟鱇和银鲳(Pampus argenteus)转变为龙头鱼(Harpadon nehereus)、细纹狮子鱼(Liparis tanakae)和鳀;以重量和数量计算的丰富度指数(Rw和Rn)、多样性指数(H′w和H′n)逐步降低,2018年以后显著回升,均匀度指数(J′w和J′n)波动较小。研究表明,近30年秋季黄海关键种没有变化,但优势种变化明显,群落结构有波动,但仍处于较稳定状态。
关键词:  黄海  鱼类群落  食物网拓扑结构  网络分析法  关键种
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Interdecadal changes in keystone species of fish community during autumn in the Yellow Sea
SU Chengcheng1,2,3, SHAN Xiujuan1,2,4, YANG Tao1,2,4, HAN Qingpeng1,2,5
1.Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Key Laboratory of Sustainable Development of Marine Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs;2.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Fishery Resources and Ecological Environment, Qingdao, Shandong 266071, China;3.College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306, China;4.Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Pilot National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology (Qingdao), Qingdao, Shandong 266237, China;5.College of Fisheries, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003, China
Abstract:
Keystone species play an important role in structural stability of a community and changes in diversity. Using Yellow Sea autumn survey data for 1985, 2001, 2009, and 2018, we constructed the topological structure of the food-web network of the Yellow Sea fish community and analyzed the interdecadal changes of keystone species in the Yellow Sea fish community. The food webs included 67~103 different fish species and 300~449 prey-predator relationships. The structural density of these food webs ranged from 0.198 to 0.227, and interspecies connectivity ranged between 0.044 and 0.074, consistent with fish communities under natural conditions. The keystone species of the autumn fish community in the Yellow Sea from 1985 to 2018 were Engraulis japonicus, Lophius litulon, and Larimichthys polyactis, remaining unchanged for nearly 30 years. E. japonicus is the keystone prey in the fish community, while L. polyactis as a species that controls the fragmentation of community, both resources decline. As the keystone predator, L. litulon resources have gradually increased. From 1985 to 2018, the dominant species in the Yellow Sea changed significantly in autumn, gradually shifting from L. polyactis and Pampus argenteus to Harpadon nehereus, Liparis tanakae, and E. japonicus. The Margalef richness index (Rw, Rn) and Shannon diversity index (H'w, H'n) calculated by weight and quantity have gradually decreased and have rebounded significantly in 2018, while Pielou evenness index (J'w, J'n) fluctuated slightly. The keystone species in the Yellow Sea did not change in autumn; however, the dominant species changed significantly, while the community structure fluctuated slightly but still remained in a relatively stable state.
Key words:  Yellow Sea  Fish community  Food-web topological structure  Network analysis  Keystone species